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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 4 | Pages 718 - 724
1 Apr 2021
Cavalier M Johnston TR Tran L Gauci M Boileau P


The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for recurrent instability of the shoulder and assess the ability to return to sport in patients with engaging Hill-Sachs lesions treated with arthroscopic Bankart repair and Hill-Sachs remplissage (ABR-HSR).


This retrospective study included 133 consecutive patients with a mean age of 30 years (14 to 69) who underwent ABR-HSR; 103 (77%) practiced sports before the instability of the shoulder. All had large/deep, engaging Hill-Sachs lesions (Calandra III). Patients were divided into two groups: A (n = 102) with minimal or no (< 10%) glenoid bone loss, and B (n = 31) with subcritical (10% to 20%) glenoid loss. A total of 19 patients (14%) had undergone a previous stabilization, which failed. The primary endpoint was recurrent instability, with a secondary outcome of the ability to return to sport.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1760 - 1766
1 Dec 2020
Langlais T Hardy MB Lavoue V Barret H Wilson A Boileau P


We aimed to address the question on whether there is a place for shoulder stabilization surgery in patients who had voluntary posterior instability starting in childhood and adolescence, and later becoming involuntary and uncontrollable.


Consecutive patients who had an operation for recurrent posterior instability before the age of 18 years were studied retrospectively. All patients had failed conservative treatment for at least six months prior to surgery; and no patients had psychiatric disorders. Two groups were identified and compared: voluntary posterior instability starting in childhood which became uncontrollable and involuntary (group VBI); and involuntary posterior instability (group I). Patients were reviewed and assessed at least two years after surgery by two examiners.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 4 | Pages 461 - 469
1 Apr 2019
Lädermann A Schwitzguebel AJ Edwards TB Godeneche A Favard L Walch G Sirveaux F Boileau P Gerber C


The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of different treatment options for glenoid loosening following reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) at a minimum follow-up of two years.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively studied the records of 79 patients (19 men, 60 women; 84 shoulders) aged 70.4 years (21 to 87) treated for aseptic loosening of the glenosphere following RSA. Clinical evaluation included pre- and post-treatment active anterior elevation (AAE), external rotation, and Constant score.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 4 | Pages 485 - 492
1 Apr 2018
Gauci MO Bonnevialle N Moineau G Baba M Walch G Boileau P


Controversy about the use of an anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty (aTSA) in young arthritic patients relates to which is the ideal form of fixation for the glenoid component: cemented or cementless. This study aimed to evaluate implant survival of aTSA when used in patients aged < 60 years with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis (OA), and to compare the survival of cemented all-polyethylene and cementless metal-backed glenoid components.

Materials and Methods

A total of 69 consecutive aTSAs were performed in 67 patients aged < 60 years with primary glenohumeral OA. Their mean age at the time of surgery was 54 years (35 to 60). Of these aTSAs, 46 were undertaken using a cemented polyethylene component and 23 were undertaken using a cementless metal-backed component. The age, gender, preoperative function, mobility, premorbid glenoid erosion, and length of follow-up were comparable in the two groups. The patients were reviewed clinically and radiographically at a mean of 10.3 years (5 to 12, sd 26) postoperatively. Kaplan–Meier survivorship analysis was performed with revision as the endpoint.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 3 | Pages 318 - 323
1 Mar 2018
Raiss P Alami G Bruckner T Magosch P Habermeyer P Boileau P Walch G


The aim of this study was to analyze the results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) in patients with type 1 sequelae of a fracture of the proximal humerus in association with rotator cuff deficiency or severe stiffness of the shoulder.

Patients and Methods

A total of 38 patients were included: 28 women and ten men. Their mean age at the time of arthroplasty was 73 years (54 to 91). Before the RSA, 18 patients had been treated with open reduction and internal fixation following a fracture. A total of 22 patients had a rotator cuff tear and 11 had severe stiffness of the shoulder with < 0° of external rotation. The mean follow-up was 4.3 years (1.5 to 10). The Constant score and the range of movement of the shoulder were recorded preoperatively and at final follow-up.

Preoperatively, radiographs in two planes were performed, as well as CT or arthro-CT scans; radiographs were also performed at final follow-up.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 7 | Pages 927 - 933
1 Jul 2017
Poltaretskyi S Chaoui J Mayya M Hamitouche C Bercik MJ Boileau P Walch G


Restoring the pre-morbid anatomy of the proximal humerus is a goal of anatomical shoulder arthroplasty, but reliance is placed on the surgeon’s experience and on anatomical estimations. The purpose of this study was to present a novel method, ‘Statistical Shape Modelling’, which accurately predicts the pre-morbid proximal humeral anatomy and calculates the 3D geometric parameters needed to restore normal anatomy in patients with severe degenerative osteoarthritis or a fracture of the proximal humerus.

Materials and Methods

From a database of 57 humeral CT scans 3D humeral reconstructions were manually created. The reconstructions were used to construct a statistical shape model (SSM), which was then tested on a second set of 52 scans. For each humerus in the second set, 3D reconstructions of four diaphyseal segments of varying lengths were created. These reconstructions were chosen to mimic severe osteoarthritis, a fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus and a proximal humeral fracture with diaphyseal extension. The SSM was then applied to the diaphyseal segments to see how well it predicted proximal morphology, using the actual proximal humeral morphology for comparison.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1080 - 1085
1 Aug 2016
Gauci MO Boileau P Baba M Chaoui J Walch G


Patient-specific glenoid guides (PSGs) claim an improvement in accuracy and reproducibility of the positioning of components in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). The results have not yet been confirmed in a prospective clinical trial. Our aim was to assess whether the use of PSGs in patients with osteoarthritis of the shoulder would allow accurate and reliable implantation of the glenoid component.

Patients and Methods

A total of 17 patients (three men and 14 women) with a mean age of 71 years (53 to 81) awaiting TSA were enrolled in the study. Pre- and post-operative version and inclination of the glenoid were measured on CT scans, using 3D planning automatic software. During surgery, a congruent 3D-printed PSG was applied onto the glenoid surface, thus determining the entry point and orientation of the central guide wire used for reaming the glenoid and the introduction of the component. Manual segmentation was performed on post-operative CT scans to compare the planned and the actual position of the entry point (mm) and orientation of the component (°).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1377 - 1382
1 Oct 2013
Walch G Mesiha M Boileau P Edwards TB Lévigne C Moineau G Young A

Osteoarthritis results in changes in the dimensions of the glenoid. This study aimed to assess the size and radius of curvature of arthritic glenoids. A total of 145 CT scans were analysed, performed as part of routine pre-operative assessment before total shoulder replacement in 91 women and 54 men. Only patients with primary osteoarthritis and a concentric glenoid were included in the study. The CT scans underwent three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and were analysed using dedicated computer software. The measurements consisted of maximum superoinferior height, anteroposterior width and a best-fit sphere radius of curvature of the glenoid.

The mean height was 40.2 mm (sd 4.9), the mean width was 29 mm (sd 4.3) and the mean radius of curvature was 35.4 mm (sd 7.8). The measurements were statistically different in men and women and had a Gaussian distribution with marked variation. All measurements were greater than the known values in normal subjects.

With current shoulder replacement systems using a unique backside radius of curvature for the glenoid component, there is a risk of undertaking excessive reaming to adapt the bone to the component resulting in sacrifice of subchondral bone or under-reaming and instability of the component due to a ’rocking horse‘ phenomenon.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1377–82.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1106 - 1113
1 Aug 2013
Lädermann A Walch G Denard PJ Collin P Sirveaux F Favard L Edwards TB Kherad O Boileau P

The indications for reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) continue to be expanded. Associated impairment of the deltoid muscle has been considered a contraindication to its use, as function of the RSA depends on the deltoid and impairment of the deltoid may increase the risk of dislocation. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the functional outcome and risk of dislocation following the use of an RSA in patients with impaired deltoid function. Between 1999 and 2010, 49 patients (49 shoulders) with impairment of the deltoid underwent RSA and were reviewed at a mean of 38 months (12 to 142) post-operatively. There were nine post-operative complications (18%), including two dislocations. The mean forward elevation improved from 50° (sd 38; 0° to 150°) pre-operatively to 121° (sd 40; 0° to 170°) at final follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean Constant score improved from 24 (sd 12; 2 to 51) to 58 (sd 17; 16 to 83) (p < 0.001). The mean Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score was 71 (sd 17; 10 to 95) and the rate of patient satisfaction was 98% (48 of 49) at final follow-up.

These results suggest that pre-operative deltoid impairment, in certain circumstances, is not an absolute contraindication to RSA. This form of treatment can yield reliable improvement in function without excessive risk of post-operative dislocation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1106–13.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 210 - 216
1 Feb 2011
Young A Walch G Boileau P Favard L Gohlke F Loew M Molé D

We report the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of the Aequalis total shoulder replacement with a cemented all-polyethylene flat-back keeled glenoid component implanted for primary osteoarthritis between 1991 and 2003 in nine European centres. A total of 226 shoulders in 210 patients were retrospectively reviewed at a mean of 122.7 months (61 to 219) or at revision. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Constant score, patient satisfaction score and range of movement. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was performed with glenoid revision for loosening and radiological glenoid loosening (sd) as endpoints. The Constant score was found to improve from a mean of 26.8 (sd 10.3) pre-operatively to 57.6 (sd 20.0) post-operatively (p < 0.001). Active forward flexion improved from a mean of 85.3° (sd 27.4) pre-operatively to 125° (sd 37.3) postoperatively (p < 0.001). External rotation improved from a mean of 7° (sd 6.5) pre-operatively to 30.3° (sd 21.8°) post-operatively (p < 0.001). Survivorship with revision of the glenoid component as the endpoint was 99.1% at five years, 94.5% at ten years and 79.4% at 15 years. Survivorship with radiological loosening as the endpoint was 99.1% at five years, 80.3% at ten years and 33.6% at 15 years.

Younger patient age and the curettage technique for glenoid preparation correlated with loosening. The rate of glenoid revision and radiological loosening increased with duration of follow-up, but not until a follow-up of five years. Therefore, we recommend that future studies reporting radiological outcomes of new glenoid designs should report follow-up of at least five to ten years.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1470 - 1477
1 Nov 2007
Balg F Boileau P

There is no simple method available to identify patients who will develop recurrent instability after an arthroscopic Bankart procedure and who would be better served by an open operation.

We carried out a prospective case-control study of 131 consecutive unselected patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability who underwent this procedure using suture anchors. At follow-up after a mean of 31.2 months (24 to 52) 19 (14.5%) had recurrent instability. The following risk factors were identified: patient age under 20 years at the time of surgery; involvement in competitive or contact sports or those involving forced overhead activity; shoulder hyperlaxity; a Hill-Sachs lesion present on an anteroposterior radiograph of the shoulder in external rotation and/or loss of the sclerotic inferior glenoid contour.

These factors were integrated in a 10-point pre-operative instability severity index score and tested retrospectively on the same population. Patients with a score over 6 points had an unacceptable recurrence risk of 70% (p < 0.001). On this basis we believe that an arthroscopic Bankart repair is contraindicated in these patients, to whom we now suggest a Bristow-Latarjet procedure instead.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1188 - 1196
1 Sep 2007
Hobby J Griffin D Dunbar M Boileau P

A systematic search of the literature published between January 1985 and February 2006 identified 62 studies which reported the results of arthroscopic procedures for chronic anterior shoulder instability or comparisons between arthroscopic and open surgery. These studies were classified by surgical technique and research methodology, and when appropriate, were included in a meta-analysis.

The failure rate of arthroscopic shoulder stabilisation using staples or transglenoid suture techniques appeared to be significantly higher than that of either open surgery or arthroscopic stabilisation using suture anchors or bio-absorbable tacks. Arthroscopic anterior stabilisation using the most effective techniques has a similar rate of failure to open stabilisation after two years.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1001 - 1009
1 Aug 2007
Ahrens PM Boileau P

This paper describes the current views on the pathology of lesions of the tendon of the long head of biceps and their management. Their diagnosis is described and their surgical management classified, with details of the techniques employed.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 5 | Pages 562 - 575
1 May 2006
Boileau P Sinnerton RJ Chuinard C Walch G

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 1 | Pages 65 - 69
1 Jan 2004
Coste JS Reig S Trojani C Berg M Walch G Boileau P

The management and outcome of treatment in 42 patients (49 shoulders) with an infected shoulder prosthesis was reviewed in a retrospective multicentre study of 2343 prostheses. The factors which were analysed included the primary diagnosis, the delay between the diagnosis of infection and treatment and the type of treatment. Treatment was considered to be successful in 30 patients (71%). Previous surgery and radiotherapy were identified as risk factors for the development of infection. All patients with an infected prosthesis had pain and limitation of movement and 88% showed radiological loosening. In 50% of the shoulders, the antibiotics chosen and the length of treatment were considered not to be optimal. The mean follow-up was 34 months. Antibiotics or debridement alone were ineffective. In acute infection, immediate revision with excision of all infected tissue and exchange of the prosthesis with appropriate antibiotic therapy gave the best results. Multidisciplinary collaboration is recommended.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 5 | Pages 857 - 865
1 Sep 1997
Boileau P Walch G

We have studied the three-dimensional geometry of the proximal humerus on human cadaver specimens using a digitised measuring device linked to a computer. Our findings demonstrated the variable shape of the proximal humerus as well as its variable dimensions. The articular surface, which is part of a sphere varies individually in its orientation as regards inclination and retroversion, and it has variable medial and posterior offsets.

These variations cannot be accommodated by the designs of most contemporary humeral components. Although good clinical results can be achieved with current modular and non-modular components their relatively fixed geometry prevents truly anatomical restoration in many cases.

To try to restore the original three-dimensional geometry of the proximal humerus, we have developed a new type of humeral component which is modular and adaptable to the individual anatomy. Such adaptability allows correct positioning of the prosthetic head in relation to an individual anatomical neck, after removal of the marginal osteophytes. The design of this third-generation prosthesis respects the four geometrical variations which have been demonstrated in the present study. These are inclination, retroversion, medial offset and posterior offset.