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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1120 - 1125
1 Aug 2012
Alazzawi S Bardakos NV Hadfield SG Butt U Beer ZH Field RE

Using general practitioner records and hospital notes and through direct telephone conversation with patients, we investigated the accuracy of nine patient-reported complications gathered from a self-completed questionnaire after elective joint replacement surgery of the hip and knee. A total of 402 post-discharge complications were reported after 8546 elective operations that were undertaken within a three-year period. These were reported by 136 men and 240 women with a mean age of 71.8 years (34 to 93). A total of 319 reported complications (79.4%; 95% confidence interval 75.4 to 83.3) were confirmed to be correct. High rates of correct reporting were demonstrated for infection (94.5%) and the need for further surgery (100%), whereas the rates of reporting deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction and stroke were lower (75% to 84.2%). Dislocation, peri-prosthetic fractures and nerve palsy had modest rates of correct reporting (36% to 57.1%). More patients who had knee surgery delivered incorrect reports of dislocation (p = 0.001) and DVT (p = 0.013).

Despite these variations, it appears that post-operative complications may form part of a larger patient-reported outcome programme after elective joint replacement surgery.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 1, Issue 7 | Pages 131 - 144
1 Jul 2012
Papavasiliou AV Bardakos NV

Over recent years hip arthroscopic surgery has evolved into one of the most rapidly expanding fields in orthopaedic surgery. Complications are largely transient and incidences between 0.5% and 6.4% have been reported. However, major complications can and do occur. This article analyses the reported complications and makes recommendations based on the literature review and personal experience on how to minimise them.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 1, Issue 2 | Pages 34 - 34
1 Apr 2012
Bardakos NV Freeman MAR

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 5 | Pages 580 - 586
1 May 2011
Hartofilakidis G Bardakos NV Babis GC Georgiades G

We retrospectively examined the long-term outcome of 96 asymptomatic hips in 96 patients with a mean age of 49.3 years (16 to 65) who had radiological evidence of femoroacetabular impingement. When surveillance commenced there were 17, 34, and 45 hips with cam, pincer, and mixed impingement, respectively. Overall, 79 hips (82.3%) remained free of osteoarthritis for a mean of 18.5 years (10 to 40). In contrast, 17 hips (17.7%) developed osteoarthritis at a mean of 12 years (2 to 28). No statistically significant difference was found in the rates of development of osteoarthritis among the three groups (p = 0.43). Regression analysis showed that only the presence of idiopathic osteoarthritis of the contralateral diseased hip was predictive of development of osteoarthritis on the asymptomatic side (p = 0.039).

We conclude that a substantial proportion of hips with femoroacetabular impingement may not develop osteoarthritis in the long-term. Accordingly, in the absence of symptoms, prophylactic surgical treatment is not warranted.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 2 | Pages 162 - 169
1 Feb 2009
Bardakos NV Villar RN

Although the association between femoroacetabular impingement and osteoarthritis is established, it is not yet clear which hips have the greatest likelihood to progress rapidly to end-stage disease. We investigated the effect of several radiological parameters, each indicative of a structural aspect of the hip joint, on the progression of osteoarthritis. Pairs of plain anteroposterior pelvic radiographs, taken at least ten years apart, of 43 patients (43 hips) with a pistol-grip deformity of the femur and mild (Tönnis grade 1) or moderate (Tönnis grade 2) osteoarthritis were reviewed. Of the 43 hips, 28 showed evidence of progression of osteoarthritis. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of progression between hips with initial Tönnis grade 1 or grade 2 osteoarthritis (p = 0.31). Comparison of the hips with and without progression of arthritis revealed a significant difference in the mean medial proximal femoral angle (81° vs 87°, p = 0.004) and the presence of the posterior wall sign (39% vs 7%, p = 0.02) only. A logistic regression model was constructed to predict the influence of these two variables in the development of osteoarthritis.

Mild to moderate osteoarthritis in hips with a pistol-grip deformity will not progress rapidly in all patients. In one-third, progression will take more than ten years to manifest, if ever. The individual geometry of the proximal femur and acetabulum partly influences this phenomenon. A hip with cam impingement is not always destined for end-stage arthritic degeneration.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 1 | Pages 8 - 15
1 Jan 2009
Bardakos NV Villar RN

Advances in hip arthroscopy have renewed interest in the ligamentum teres. Considered by many to be a developmental vestige, it is now recognised as a significant potential source of pain and mechanical symptoms arising from the hip joint. Despite improvements in imaging, arthroscopy remains the optimum method of diagnosing lesions of the ligamentum teres. Several biological or mechanical roles have been proposed for the ligament. Unless these are disproved, the use of surgical procedures that sacrifice the ligamentum teres, as in surgical dislocation of the hip, should be carefully considered. This paper provides an update on the development, structure and function of the ligamentum teres, and discusses associated clinical implications.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1570 - 1575
1 Dec 2008
Bardakos NV Vasconcelos JC Villar RN

There is a known association between femoroacetabular impingement and osteoarthritis of the hip. What is not known is whether arthroscopic excision of an impingement lesion can significantly improve a patient’s symptoms.

This study compares the results of hip arthroscopy for cam-type femoracetabular impingement in two groups of patients at one year. The study group comprised 24 patients (24 hips) with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement who underwent arthroscopic debridement with excision of their impingement lesion (osteoplasty). The control group comprised 47 patients (47 hips) who had arthroscopic debridement without excision of the impingement lesion. In both groups, the presence of femoroacetabular impingement was confirmed on pre-operative plain radiographs. The modified Harris hip score was used for evaluation pre-operatively and at one-year. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis.

A tendency towards a higher median post-operative modified Harris hip score was observed in the study group compared with the control group (83 vs 77, p = 0.11). There was a significantly higher proportion of patients in the osteoplasty group with excellent/good results compared with the controls (83% vs 60%, p = 0.043). Additional symptomatic improvement may be obtained after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement by the inclusion of femoral osteoplasty.