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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 10 | Pages 893 - 899
26 Oct 2021
Ahmed M Hamilton LC

Orthopaedics has been left behind in the worldwide drive towards diversity and inclusion. In the UK, only 7% of orthopaedic consultants are female. There is growing evidence that diversity increases innovation as well as patient outcomes. This paper has reviewed the literature to identify some of the common issues affecting female surgeons in orthopaedics, and ways in which we can address them: there is a wealth of evidence documenting the differences in the journey of men and women towards a consultant role. We also look at lessons learned from research in the business sector and the military. The ‘Hidden Curriculum’ is out of date and needs to enter the 21st century: microaggressions in the workplace must be challenged; we need to consider more flexible training options and support trainees who wish to become pregnant; mentors, both male and female, are imperative to provide support for trainees. The world has changed, and we need to consider how we can improve diversity to stay relevant and effective.

Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2021;2-10:893–899.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 2 | Pages 134 - 140
24 Feb 2021
Logishetty K Edwards TC Subbiah Ponniah H Ahmed M Liddle AD Cobb J Clark C


Restarting planned surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic is a clinical and societal priority, but it is unknown whether it can be done safely and include high-risk or complex cases. We developed a Surgical Prioritization and Allocation Guide (SPAG). Here, we validate its effectiveness and safety in COVID-free sites.


A multidisciplinary surgical prioritization committee developed the SPAG, incorporating procedural urgency, shared decision-making, patient safety, and biopsychosocial factors; and applied it to 1,142 adult patients awaiting orthopaedic surgery. Patients were stratified into four priority groups and underwent surgery at three COVID-free sites, including one with access to a high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) and specialist resources. Safety was assessed by the number of patients requiring inpatient postoperative HDU/ICU admission, contracting COVID-19 within 14 days postoperatively, and mortality within 30 days postoperatively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 5 | Pages 596 - 602
1 May 2019
El-Hawary A Kandil YR Ahmed M Elgeidi A El-Mowafi H


We hypothesized that there is no difference in the clinical and radiological outcomes using local bone graft versus iliac graft for subtalar distraction arthrodesis in patients with calcaneal malunion. In addition, using local bone graft negates the donor site morbidity.

Patients and Methods

We prospectively studied 28 calcaneal malunion patients (the study group) who were managed by subtalar distraction arthrodesis using local calcaneal bone graft. The study group included 16 male and 12 female patients. The median age was 37.5 years (interquartile range (IQR) 29 to 43). The outcome of the study group was compared with a control group of ten patients previously managed by subtalar distraction arthrodesis using iliac bone graft. The control group included six male and four female patients. The median age was 41.5 years (IQR 36 to 44).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 6 | Pages 894 - 899
1 Jun 2010
Khattak MJ Ahmad T Rehman R Umer M Hasan SH Ahmed M

The nervous system is known to be involved in inflammation and repair. We aimed to determine the effect of physical activity on the healing of a muscle injury and to examine the pattern of innervation. Using a drop-ball technique, a contusion was produced in the gastrocnemius in 20 rats. In ten the limb was immobilised in a plaster cast and the remaining ten had mobilisation on a running wheel. The muscle and the corresponding dorsal-root ganglia were studied by histological and immunohistochemical methods.

In the mobilisation group, there was a significant reduction in lymphocytes (p = 0.016), macrophages (p = 0.008) and myotubules (p = 0.008) between three and 21 days. The formation of myotubules and the density of nerve fibres was significantly higher (both p = 0.016) compared with those in the immobilisation group at three days, while the density of CGRP-positive fibres was significantly lower (p = 0.016) after 21 days.

Mobilisation after contusional injury to the muscle resulted in early and increased formation of myotubules, early nerve regeneration and progressive reduction in inflammation, suggesting that it promoted a better healing response.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1163 - 1169
1 Nov 2004
Ahmed M Ahmed N Khan KM Umer M Rashid H Hashmi P Umar M

We have compared the density of nerve fibres in the synovium in club foot with that of specimens obtained from the synovium of the hip at operations for developmental dysplasia. The study focused on the sensory neuropeptides substance P; calcitonin gene-related peptide; protein gene product 9.5, a general marker for mature peripheral nerve fibres; and growth associated protein 43, a neuronal marker for new or regenerating nerve fibres. In order to establish whether there might be any inherent difference we analysed the density of calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive nerve fibres in the hip and ankle joints in young rats.

Semi-quantitative analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of sensory and mature nerve fibres in the synovium in club foot compared with the control hips. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive fibres were reduced by 28%, substance P-positive fibres by 36% and protein gene product 9.5-positive fibres by 52% in club foot. The growth associated protein 43-positive fibres also seemed to be less in six samples of club foot. No difference in the density of CGRP-positive nerve fibres was observed in the synovium between ankle and hip joints in rats.

The lack of sensory input may be responsible for the fibrosis and soft-tissue contractures associated with idiopathic club foot.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 1 | Pages 151 - 155
1 Jan 1998
Ahmed M Bergström J Lundblad H Gillespie WJ Kreicbergs A

We studied the presence of sensory nerves by immunohistochemistry in the interface membranes of hip prostheses after aseptic loosening. Substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were analysed as was protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, a general marker for nerve fibres.

We identified nerve fibres in all samples but differences in their density were found. SP- and NKA-positive fibres were predominantly non-vascular, forming varicose nerve terminals. CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres with varicose terminals were seen mostly close to blood vessels, but also as free nerve endings.

Sensory neuropeptides participate not only in nociception but also stimulate immune cells to release cytokines. The presence of sensory nerves in the interface membrane may reflect a pathophysiological response contributing to the aseptic loosening of hip prostheses.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 63-B, Issue 2 | Pages 244 - 253
1 May 1981
Chacha P Ahmed M Daruwalla J

Failure of union of the tibia with a large defect is difficult to treat, especially in the presence of sepsis and adherent scars. Conventional methods of fixation and bone grafting are not easily applicable. Experiments on Macaca monkeys showed that a vascularised pedicle graft of the shaft of the ipsilateral fibula could be fixed across a defect in the tibia and remain viable, even if it was isolated from surrounding soft tissues. Transfer of part of the shaft of the ipsilateral fibula on a vascular and muscle pedicle was carried out in 11 patients with large tibial defects and sepsis. There was one failure because of severe infection, but the other 10 patients gained sound union in about four months. The tibia was then protected by a caliper for the 18 months of full reconstitution. The bone infection healed and there was no evidence of avascular necrosis. Although the salvaged limbs were scarred, stiff and ugly, none of the patients suffered from pain, recurrent oedema or persistent infection.