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In vivo kinematics of deep lunges and sit-to-stand activities in patients with bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty

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The removal of the cruciate ligaments in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been suggested as a potential contributing factor to patient dissatisfaction, due to alteration of the in vivo biomechanics of the knee. Bicruciate retaining (BCR) TKA allows the preservation of the cruciate ligaments, thus offering the potential to reproduce healthy kinematics. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo kinematics between the operated and contralateral knee in patients who have undergone TKA with a contemporary BCR design.


A total of 29 patients who underwent unilateral BCR TKA were evaluated during single-leg deep lunges and sit-to-stand tests using a validated computer tomography and fluoroscopic imaging system. In vivo six-degrees of freedom (6DOF) kinematics were compared between the BCR TKA and the contralateral knee.


During single-leg deep lunge, BCR TKAs showed significantly less mean posterior femoral translation (13 mm; standard deviation (SD) 4) during terminal flexion, compared with the contralateral knee (16.6 mm, SD 3.7; p = 0.001). Similarly, BCR TKAs showed significantly less mean femoral rollback (11.6 mm (SD 4.5) vs 14.4 mm (SD 4.6); p < 0.043) during sit-to-stand. BCR TKAs showed significantly reduced internal rotation during many parts of the strenuous flexion activities particularly during high-flexion lunge (4° (SD 5.6°) vs 6.5° (SD 6.1°); p = 0.051) and during sit-to-stand (4.5° (SD 6°) vs 6.9° (SD 6.3°); p = 0.048).


The contemporary design of BCR TKA showed asymmetrical flexion-extension and internal-external rotation, suggesting that the kinematics are not entirely reproduced during strenuous activities. Future studies are required to establish the importance of patient factors, component orientation and design, in optimizing kinematics in patients who undergo BCR TKA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6 Supple A):59–65.

Correspondence should be sent to Young-Min Kwon. E-mail:

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