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Volume 97-B, Issue 6 June 2015

Proximal femoral fractures Pages 721 - 722
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F. S. Haddad J. Waddell
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D. F. Hamilton C. R. Howie R. Burnett A. H. R. W. Simpson J. T. Patton
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Worldwide rates of primary and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are rising due to increased longevity of the population and the burden of osteoarthritis.

Revision TKA is a technically demanding procedure generating outcomes which are reported to be inferior to those of primary knee arthroplasty, and with a higher risk of complication. Overall, the rate of revision after primary arthroplasty is low, but the number of patients currently living with a TKA suggests a large potential revision healthcare burden.

Many patients are now outliving their prosthesis, and consideration must be given to how we are to provide the necessary capacity to meet the rising demand for revision surgery and how to maximise patient outcomes.

The purpose of this review was to examine the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, revision knee arthroplasty, and to discuss factors that may enhance patient outcomes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:723–8.

S. R. Y. W. Thomas
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Successful management of late presenting hip dislocation in childhood is judged by the outcome not just at skeletal maturity but well beyond into adulthood and late middle age. This review considers different methods of treatment and looks critically at the handful of studies reporting long-term follow-up after successful reduction.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:729–33.

Y. M. den Hartog N. M. C. Mathijssen N. T. van Dasselaar P. N. J. Langendijk S. B. W. Vehmeijer
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Only limited data are available regarding the infiltration of local anaesthetic for total hip arthroplasty (THA), and no studies were performed for THA using the anterior approach.

In this prospective, randomised placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of both standard and reverse infiltration of local anaesthetic in combination with the anterior approach for THA. The primary endpoint was the mean numeric rating score for pain four hours post-operatively. In addition, we recorded the length of hospital stay, the operating time, the destination of the patient at discharge, the use of pain medication, the occurrence of side effects and pain scores at various times post-operatively.

Between November 2012 and January 2014, 75 patients were included in the study. They were randomised into three groups: standard infiltration of local anaesthetic, reversed infiltration of local anaesthetic, and placebo. There was no difference in mean numeric rating score for pain four hours post-operatively (p = 0.87). There were significantly more side effects at one and eight hours post-operatively in the placebo group (p = 0.02; p = 0.03), but this did not influence the mobilisation of the patients. There were no differences in all other outcomes between the groups.

We found no clinically relevant effect when the infiltration of local anaesthetic with ropivacaine and epinephrine was used in a multimodal pain protocol for THA using the anterior approach.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:734–40.

M. P. Bonnin C. C. Neto T. Aitsiselmi C. G. Murphy N. Bossard S. Roche
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the geometry of the proximal femur and the incidence of intra-operative fracture during uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA).

We studied the pre-operative CT scans of 100 patients undergoing THA with an uncemented femoral component. We measured the anteroposterior and mediolateral dimensions at the level of division of the femoral neck to calculate the aspect ratio of the femur. Wide variations in the shape of the femur were observed, from round, to very narrow elliptic. The femurs of women were narrower than those of men (p < 0.0001) and small femurs were also narrower than large ones. Patients with an intra-operative fracture of the calcar had smaller and narrower femurs than those without a fracture (p < 0.05) and the implanted Corail stems were smaller in those with a fracture (mean size 9 vs 12, p < 0.0001).

The variability of the shape of the femoral neck at the level of division contributes to the understanding of the causation of intra-operative fractures in uncemented THA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:741–8.

M. A. Syed N. J. Hutt N. Shah A. J. Edge
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This study reports the results of 38 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) in 33 patients aged <  50 years, using the JRI Furlong hydroxyapatite ceramic (HAC)-coated femoral component. This represents an update of previous reports of the same cohort at ten and 16 years, which were reported in 2004 and 2009, respectively. We describe the survival, radiological and functional outcomes at a mean follow-up of 21 years (17 to 25). Of the surviving 34 THAs, one underwent femoral revision for peri-prosthetic fracture after 21 years, and one patient (one hip) was lost to follow-up. Using aseptic loosening as the end-point, 12 hips (31.5%) needed acetabular revision but none needed femoral revision, demonstrating 100% survival (95% confidence interval 89 to 100).

In young patients with high demands, the Furlong HAC–coated femoral component gives excellent long-term results.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:749–54.

B. Flatøy S. M. Röhrl J. Rydinge J. Dahl L. M. Diep L. Nordsletten
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Cemented femoral stems with force closed fixation designs have shown good clinical results despite high early subsidence. A new triple-tapered stem in this category (C-stem AMT) was introduced in 2005. This study compares this new stem with an established stem of similar design (Exeter) in terms of migration (as measured using radiostereometric analysis), peri-prosthetic bone remodelling (measured using dual energy x-ray densitometry, DXA), Oxford Hip Score, and plain radiographs.

A total of 70 patients (70 hips) with a mean age of 66 years (53 to 78) were followed for two years. Owing to missing data of miscellaneous reasons, the final analysis represents data from 51 (RSA) and 65 (DXA) patients. Both stems showed a typical pattern of migration: Subsidence and retroversion that primarily occurred during the first three months. C-stem AMT subsided less during the first three months (p = 0.01), before stabilising at a subsidence rate similar to the Exeter stem from years one to two. The rate of migration into retroversion was slightly higher for C-stem AMT during the second year (p = 0.03). Whilst there were slight differences in movement patterns between the stems, the C-stem AMT exhibits good early clinical outcomes and displays a pattern of migration and bone remodelling that predicts good clinical performance.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:755–61.

M. W. Pennington R. Grieve J. H. van der Meulen
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There is little evidence on the cost effectiveness of different brands of hip prostheses. We compared lifetime cost effectiveness of frequently used brands within types of prosthesis including cemented (Exeter V40 Contemporary, Exeter V40 Duration and Exeter V40 Elite Plus Ogee), cementless (Corail Pinnacle, Accolade Trident, and Taperloc Exceed) and hybrid (Exeter V40 Trilogy, Exeter V40 Trident, and CPT Trilogy). We used data from three linked English national databases to estimate the lifetime risk of revision, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost.

For women with osteoarthritis aged 70 years, the Exeter V40 Elite Plus Ogee had the lowest risk of revision (5.9% revision risk, 9.0 QALYs) and the CPT Trilogy had the highest QALYs (10.9% revision risk, 9.3 QALYs). Compared with the Corail Pinnacle (9.3% revision risk, 9.22 QALYs), the most commonly used brand, and assuming a willingness-to-pay of £20 000 per QALY gain, the CPT Trilogy is most cost effective, with an incremental net monetary benefit of £876. Differences in cost effectiveness between the hybrid CPT Trilogy and Exeter V40 Trident and the cementless Corail Pinnacle and Taperloc Exceed were small, and a cautious interpretation is required, given the limitations of the available information.

However, it is unlikely that cemented brands are among the most cost effective. Similar patterns of results were observed for men and other ages. The gain in quality of life after total hip arthroplasty, rather than the risk of revision, was the main driver of cost effectiveness.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:762–70.

M. A. J. te Stroet W. H. C. Rijnen J. W. M. Gardeniers A. van Kampen B. W. Schreurs
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We report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 208 consecutive femoral revision arthroplasties performed in 202 patients (119 women, 83 men) between March 1991 and December 2007 using the X-change Femoral Revision System, fresh-frozen morcellised allograft and a cemented polished Exeter stem. All patients were followed prospectively. The mean age of the patients at revision was 65 years (30 to 86). At final review in December 2013 a total of 130 patients with 135 reconstructions (64.9%) were alive and had a non re-revised femoral component after a mean follow-up of 10.6 years (4.7 to 20.9). One patient was lost to follow-up at six years, and their data were included up to this point. Re-operation for any reason was performed in 33 hips (15.9%), in 13 of which the femoral component was re-revised (6.3%). The mean pre-operative Harris hip score was 52 (19 to 95) (n = 73) and improved to 80 (22 to 100) (n = 161) by the last follow-up. Kaplan–Meier survival with femoral re-revision for any reason as the endpoint was 94.9% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 90.2 to 97.4) at ten years; with femoral re-revision for aseptic loosening as the endpoint it was 99.4% (95% CI 95.7 to 99.9); with femoral re-operation for any reason as the endpoint it was 84.5% (95% CI 78.3 to 89.1); and with subsidence ≥ 5 mm it was 87.3% (95% CI 80.5 to 91.8). Femoral revision with the use of impaction allograft bone grafting and a cemented polished stem results in a satisfying survival rate at a mean of ten years’ follow-up.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:771–9.

M. Baauw G. G. van Hellemondt M. L. van Hooff M. Spruit
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We evaluated the accuracy with which a custom-made acetabular component could be positioned at revision arthroplasty of the hip in patients with a Paprosky type 3 acetabular defect.

A total of 16 patients with a Paprosky type 3 defect underwent revision surgery using a custom-made trabecular titanium implant. There were four men and 12 women with a median age of 67 years (48 to 79). The planned inclination (INCL), anteversion (AV), rotation and centre of rotation (COR) of the implant were compared with the post-operative position using CT scans.

A total of seven implants were malpositioned in one or more parameters: one with respect to INCL, three with respect to AV, four with respect to rotation and five with respect to the COR.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which CT data acquired for the pre-operative planning of a custom-made revision acetabular implant have been compared with CT data on the post-operative position. The results are encouraging.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:780–5.

J. R. B. Hutt P. Farhadnia V. Massé M. Lavigne P-A. Vendittoli
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This randomised trial evaluated the outcome of a single design of unicompartmental arthroplasty of the knee (UKA) with either a cemented all-polyethylene or a metal-backed modular tibial component. A total of 63 knees in 45 patients (17 male, 28 female) were included, 27 in the all-polyethylene group and 36 in the metal-backed group. The mean age was 57.9 years (39.6 to 76.9). At a mean follow-up of 6.4 years (5 to 9.9), 11 all-polyethylene components (41%) were revised (at a mean of 5.8 years; 1.4 to 8.0) post-operatively and two metal-backed components were revised (at one and five years). One revision in both groups was for unexplained pain, one in the metal-backed group was for progression of osteoarthritis. The others in the all-polyethylene group were for aseptic loosening. The survivorship at seven years calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method for the all-polyethylene group was 56.5% (95% CI 31.9 to 75.2, number at risk 7) and for the metal-backed group was 93.8% (95% CI 77.3 to 98.4, number at risk 16) This difference was statistically significant (p <  0.001). At the most recent follow-up, significantly better mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index Scores were found in the all-polyethylene group (13.4 vs 23.0, p = 0.03) but there was no difference in the mean Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome scores (68.8; 41.4 to 99.0 vs 62.6; 24.0 to 100.0), p = 0.36). There were no significant differences for range of movement (p = 0.36) or satisfaction (p = 0.23).

This randomised study demonstrates that all-polyethylene components in this design of fixed bearing UKA had unsatisfactory results with significantly higher rates of failure before ten years compared with the metal-back components.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:786–92.

A. D. Liddle H. Pandit A. Judge D. W. Murray
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Whether to use total or unicompartmental knee replacement (TKA/UKA) for end-stage knee osteoarthritis remains controversial. Although UKA results in a faster recovery, lower rates of morbidity and mortality and fewer complications, the long-term revision rate is substantially higher than that for TKA. The effect of each intervention on patient-reported outcome remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether six-month patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are better in patients after TKA or UKA, using data from a large national joint registry (NJR).

We carried out a propensity score-matched cohort study which compared six-month PROMs after TKA and UKA in patients enrolled in the NJR for England and Wales, and the English national PROM collection programme. A total of 3519 UKA patients were matched to 10 557 TKAs.

The mean six-month PROMs favoured UKA: the Oxford Knee Score was 37.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 37.4 to 38.0) for UKA and 36.1 (95% CI 35.9 to 36.3) for TKA; the mean EuroQol EQ-5D index was 0.772 (95% CI 0.764 to 0.780) for UKA and 0.751 (95% CI 0.747 to 0.756) for TKA. UKA patients were more likely to achieve excellent results (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% CI 1.47 to 1.72, p < 0.001) and to be highly satisfied (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.39, p <  0.001), and were less likely to report complications than those who had undergone TKA.

UKA gives better early patient-reported outcomes than TKA; these differences are most marked for the very best outcomes. Complications and readmission are more likely after TKA. Although the data presented reflect the short-term outcome, they suggest that the high revision rate for UKA may not be because of poorer clinical outcomes. These factors should inform decision-making in patients eligible for either procedure.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:793–801.

N. Kodama Y. Takemura H. Ueba S. Imai Y. Matsusue
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A new method of vascularised tibial grafting has been developed for the treatment of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the talus and secondary osteoarthritis (OA) of the ankle. We used 40 cadavers to identify the vascular anatomy of the distal tibia in order to establish how to elevate a vascularised tibial graft safely. Between 2008 and 2012, eight patients (three male, five female, mean age 50 years; 26 to 68) with isolated AVN of the talus and 12 patients (four male, eight female, mean age 58 years; 23 to 76) with secondary OA underwent vascularised bone grafting from the distal tibia either to revascularise the talus or for arthrodesis. The radiological and clinical outcomes were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 31 months (24 to 62). The peri-malleolar arterial arch was confirmed in the cadaveric study. A vascularised bone graft could be elevated safely using the peri-malleolar pedicle. The clinical outcomes for the group with AVN of the talus assessed with the mean Mazur ankle grading scores, improved significantly from 39 points (21 to 48) pre-operatively to 81 points (73 to 90) at the final follow-up (p = 0.01). In all eight revascularisations, bone healing was obtained without progression to talar collapse, and union was established in 11 of 12 vascularised arthrodeses at a mean follow-up of 34 months (24 to 58). MRI showed revascularisation of the talus in all patients.

We conclude that a vascularised tibial graft can be used both for revascularisation of the talus and for the arthrodesis of the ankle in patients with OA secondary to AVN of the talus.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:802–8.

D. A. Butt T. Hester A. Bilal M. Edmonds V. Kavarthapu
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Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy (CN) of the midfoot presents a major reconstructive challenge for the foot and ankle surgeon. The Synthes 6 mm Midfoot Fusion Bolt is both designed and recommended for patients who have a deformity of the medial column of the foot due to CN. We present the results from the first nine patients (ten feet) on which we attempted to perform fusion of the medial column using this bolt. Six feet had concurrent hindfoot fusion using a retrograde nail. Satisfactory correction of deformity of the medial column was achieved in all patients. The mean correction of calcaneal pitch was from 6° (-15° to +18°) pre-operatively to 16° (7° to 23°) post-operatively; the mean Meary angle from 26° (3° to 46°) to 1° (1° to 2°); and the mean talometatarsal angle on dorsoplantar radiographs from 27° (1° to 48°) to 1° (1° to 3°).

However, in all but two feet, at least one joint failed to fuse. The bolt migrated in six feet, all of which showed progressive radiographic osteolysis, which was considered to indicate loosening. Four of these feet have undergone a revision procedure, with good radiological evidence of fusion. The medial column bolt provided satisfactory correction of the deformity but failed to provide adequate fixation for fusion in CN deformities in the foot.

In its present form, we cannot recommend the routine use of this bolt.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:809–13

D. Bose R. Kugan D. Stubbs M. McNally
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Infected nonunion of a long bone continues to present difficulties in management. In addition to treating the infection, it is necessary to establish bony stability, encourage fracture union and reconstruct the soft-tissue envelope.

We present a series of 67 infected nonunions of a long bone in 66 patients treated in a multidisciplinary unit. The operative treatment of patients suitable for limb salvage was performed as a single procedure. Antibiotic regimes were determined by the results of microbiological culture.

At a mean follow-up of 52 months (22 to 97), 59 patients (88%) had an infection-free united fracture in a functioning limb. Seven others required amputation (three as primary treatment, three after late failure of limb salvage and one for recalcitrant pain after union).

The initial operation achieved union in 54 (84%) of the salvaged limbs at a mean of nine months (three to 26), with recurrence of infection in 9%. Further surgery in those limbs that remained ununited increased the union rate to 62 (97%) of the 64 limbs treated by limb salvage at final follow-up. The use of internal fixation was associated with a higher risk of recurrent infection than external fixation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:814–17.

C. E. Plant C. Hickson H. Hedley N. R. Parsons M. L. Costa
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We conducted an observational radiographic study to determine the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the AO classification of fractures of the distal radius. Plain posteroanterior and lateral radiographs of 456 patients with an acute fracture of the distal radius were classified by a consultant orthopaedic hand specialist and two specialist trainees, and the k coefficient for the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the type, group and subgroup classification was calculated.

Only the type of fracture (A, B or C) was found to provide substantial intra-observer reliability (k type 0.65). The inclusion of ‘group’ and ‘subgroup’ into the classification reduced the inter-observer reliability to fair (kgroup 0.29, ksubgroup = 0.28) and the intra-observer reliability to moderate (kgroup 0.53, ksubgroup 0.49). Disagreement was found to arise between specific subgroups, which may be amenable to clarification.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:818–23.

C. H. Cho Y. M. Lho E. Ha I. Hwang K. S. Song B. W. Min K. C. Bae D. H. Kim
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the capsule and synovial fluid of patients with frozen shoulder. Capsular tissue and synovial fluid were obtained from 18 patients with idiopathic frozen shoulder (FS group) and 18 patients with instability of the shoulder (control group). The expressions of ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3 in the capsule were determined using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The concentrations in synovial fluid were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

The mRNA expression of ASIC1, ASIC2 and ASIC3 in the capsule were significantly increased in the FS group compared with the control group. The protein levels of these three ASICs were also increased. The increased expressions were confirmed by IHC. Of the ASICs, ASIC3 showed the greatest increase in both mRNA and levels of expression compared with the control group. The levels of ASIC1 and ASIC3 in synovial fluid were significantly increased in the FS group.

This study suggests that ASICs may play a role as mediators of inflammatory pain and be involved in the pathogenesis of frozen shoulder.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:824–9.

S. L. Li Y. Lu M. Y. Wang
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This study compares the outcomes of two methods of fixation of displaced fractures of the radial neck. The 58 patients with a mean age of 38.5 years (18 to 56), were treated in a non randomised study with screws (n = 29) or a plate and screws (n = 29) according to the surgeon’s preference.

The patients were reviewed at one year. Radiographs and functional evaluations were carried out up to one year post-operatively, using the Broberg and Morrey functional evaluation score, range of movement, and assessment of complications.

The mean functional scores did not differ significantly between groups (90 (55 to 100) vs 84; 50 to 100, p = 0.09), but the mean range of forearm rotation in screw group was significantly better than in the plate group (152°; 110° to 170° vs 134°; 80° to 170°, p = 0.001). Although not statistically significant, the screw group had a lower incidence of heterotopic ossification than the plate group (n = 1) than the plated group (n = 3) and the pathology was graded as less severe.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:830–5

B. Y. Jónsson B. Mjöberg
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A total of 20 patients with a depressed fracture of the lateral tibial plateau (Schatzker II or III) who would undergo open reduction and internal fixation were randomised to have the metaphyseal void in the bone filled with either porous titanium granules or autograft bone. Radiographs were undertaken within one week, after six weeks, three months, six months, and after 12 months.

The primary outcome measure was recurrent depression of the joint surface: a secondary outcome was the duration of surgery.

The risk of recurrent depression of the joint surface was lower (p < 0.001) and the operating time less (p < 0.002) when titanium granules were used.

The indication is that it is therefore beneficial to use porous titanium granules than autograft bone to fill the void created by reducing a depressed fracture of the lateral tibial plateau. There is no donor site morbidity, the operating time is shorter and the risk of recurrent depression of the articular surface is less.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:836–41

P. M. Bennett I. D. Sargeant R. W. Myatt J. G. Penn-Barwell
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This is a retrospective study of survivors of recent conflicts with an open fracture of the femur. We analysed the records of 48 patients (48 fractures) and assessed the outcome. The median follow up for 47 patients (98%) was 37 months (interquartile range 19 to 53); 31 (66%) achieved union; 16 (34%) had a revision procedure, two of which were transfemoral amputation (4%).

The New Injury Severity Score, the method of fixation, infection and the requirement for soft-tissue cover were not associated with a poor outcome. The degree of bone loss was strongly associated with a poor outcome (p = 0.00204). A total of four patients developed an infection; two with S. aureus, one with E. coli and one with A. baumannii.

This study shows that, compared with historical experience, outcomes after open fractures of the femur sustained on the battlefield are good, with no mortality and low rates of infection and late amputation. The degree of bone loss is closely associated with a poor outcome.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:842–6.

T. Nakamura A. Matsumine K. Asanuma T. Matsubara A. Sudo
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The aim of this study was to determine whether the high-sensitivity modified Glasgow prognostic score (Hs-mGPS) could predict the disease-specific survival and oncological outcome in adult patients with non-metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma before treatment. A total of 139 patients treated between 2001 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The Hs-mGPS varied between 0 and 2. Patients with a score of 2 had a poorer disease-specific survival than patients with a score of 0 (p < 0.001). The estimated five-year rate of disease-specific survival for those with a score of 2 was 0%, compared with 85.4% (95% CI 77.3 to 93.5) for those with a score of 0. Those with a score of 2 also had a poorer disease-specific survival than those with a score of 1 (75.3%, 95% CI 55.8 to 94.8; p < 0.001). Patients with a score of 2 also had a poorer event-free rate than those with a score of 0 (p < 0.001). Those with a score of 2 also had a poorer event-free survival than did those with a score of 1 (p = 0.03). A multivariate analysis showed that the Hs-mGPS remained an independent predictor of survival and recurrence. The Hs-mGPS could be a useful prognostic marker in patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:847–52.

P. H. Hilven L. Bayliss T. Cosker P. D. S. Dijkstra P. C. Jutte L. U. Lahoda G. R. Schaap J. A. M. Bramer G. K. van Drunen S. D. Strackee J. van Vooren M. Gibbons H. Giele M. A. J. van de Sande
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Vascularised fibular grafts (VFGs ) are a valuable surgical technique in limb salvage after resection of a tumour. The primary objective of this multicentre study was to assess the risk factors for failure and complications for using a VFG after resection of a tumour.

The study involved 74 consecutive patients (45 men and 29 women with mean age of 23 years (1 to 64) from four tertiary centres for orthopaedic oncology who underwent reconstruction using a VFG after resection of a tumour between 1996 and 2011. There were 52 primary and 22 secondary reconstructions. The mean follow-up was 77 months (10 to 195).

In all, 69 patients (93%) had successful limb salvage; all of these united and 65 (88%) showed hypertrophy of the graft. The mean time to union differed between those involving the upper (28 weeks; 12 to 96) and lower limbs (44 weeks; 12 to 250). Fracture occurred in 11 (15%), and nonunion in 14 (19%) patients.

In 35 patients (47%) at least one complication arose, with a greater proportion in lower limb reconstructions, non-bridging osteosynthesis, and in children. These complications resulted in revision surgery in 26 patients (35%).

VFG is a successful and durable technique for reconstruction of a defect in bone after resection of a tumour, but is accompanied by a significant risk of complications, that often require revision surgery. Union was not markedly influenced by the need for chemo- or radiotherapy, but should not be expected during chemotherapy. Therefore, restricted weight-bearing within this period is advocated.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:853–61.

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L. Corominas-Frances I. Sanpera C. Saus-Sarrias S. Tejada-Gavela J. Sanpera-Iglesias G. Frontera-Juan
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Rebound growth after hemiepiphysiodesis may be a normal event, but little is known about its causes, incidence or factors related to its intensity. The aim of this study was to evaluate rebound growth under controlled experimental conditions.

A total of 22 six-week-old rabbits underwent a medial proximal tibial hemiepiphysiodesis using a two-hole plate and screws. Temporal growth plate arrest was maintained for three weeks, and animals were killed at intervals ranging between three days and three weeks after removal of the device. The radiological angulation of the proximal tibia was studied at weekly intervals during and after hemiepiphysiodesis. A histological study of the retrieved proximal physis of the tibia was performed.

The mean angulation achieved at three weeks was 34.7° (standard deviation (sd) 3.4), and this remained unchanged for the study period of up to two weeks. By three weeks after removal of the implant the mean angulation had dropped to 28.2° (sd 1.8) (p < 0.001). Histologically, widening of the medial side was noted during the first two weeks. By three weeks this widening had substantially disappeared and the normal columnar structure was virtually re-established.

In our rabbit model, rebound was an event of variable incidence and intensity and, when present, did not appear immediately after restoration of growth, but took some time to appear.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:862–8.