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Volume 97-B, Issue 2 February 2015

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F. S. Haddad
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R. Morgan-Jones S. I. S. Oussedik H. Graichen F. S. Haddad
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Revision knee arthroplasty presents a number of challenges, not least of which is obtaining solid primary fixation of implants into host bone. Three anatomical zones exist within both femur and tibia which can be used to support revision implants. These consist of the joint surface or epiphysis, the metaphysis and the diaphysis. The methods by which fixation in each zone can be obtained are discussed. The authors suggest that solid fixation should be obtained in at least two of the three zones and emphasise the importance of pre-operative planning and implant selection.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:147–9.

B. A. Rogers B. Alolabi A. D. Carrothers H. J. Kreder R. J. Jenkinson
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In this study we evaluated whether pre-operative Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis scores can predict satisfaction following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Prospective data for a cohort of patients undergoing THA from two large academic centres were collected, and pre-operative and one-year post-operative WOMAC scores and a 25-point satisfaction questionnaire were obtained for 446 patients. Satisfaction scores were dichotomised into either improvement or deterioration. Scatter plots and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used to describe the association between pre-operative WOMAC and one-year post-operative WOMAC scores and patient satisfaction. Satisfaction was compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis against pre-operative, post-operative and δ WOMAC scores.

We found no relationship between pre-operative WOMAC scores and one-year post-operative WOMAC or satisfaction scores, with Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients of 0.16 and –0.05, respectively. The ROC analysis showed areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.54 (pre-operative WOMAC), 0.67 (post-operative WOMAC) and 0.43 (δ WOMAC), respectively, for an improvement in satisfaction.

We conclude that the pre-operative WOMAC score does not predict the post-operative WOMAC score or patient satisfaction after THA, and that WOMAC scores can therefore not be used to prioritise patient care.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:150–3.

M. Halai S. Gupta A. Gilmour R. Bharadwaj A. Khan G. Holt
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We evaluated an operative technique, described by the Exeter Hip Unit, to assist accurate introduction of the femoral component. We assessed whether it led to a reduction in the rate of leg-length discrepancy after total hip arthroplasty (THA).

A total of 100 patients undergoing THA were studied retrospectively; 50 were undertaken using the test method and 50 using conventional methods as a control group. The groups were matched with respect to patient demographics and the grade of surgeon. Three observers measured the depth of placement of the femoral component on post-operative radiographs and measured the length of the legs.

There was a strong correlation between the depth of insertion of the femoral component and the templated depth in the test group (R = 0.92), suggesting accuracy of the technique. The mean leg-length discrepancy was 5.1 mm (0.6 to 21.4) pre-operatively and 1.3 mm (0.2 to 9.3) post-operatively. There was no difference between Consultants and Registrars as primary surgeons. Agreement between the templated and post-operative depth of insertion was associated with reduced post-operative leg-length discrepancy. The intra-class coefficient was R ≥ 0.88 for all measurements, indicating high observer agreement. The post-operative leg-length discrepancy was significantly lower in the test group (1.3 mm) compared with the control group (6.3 mm, p < 0.001).

The Exeter technique is reproducible and leads to a lower incidence of leg-length discrepancy after THA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:154–9.

J. E. Biemond S. Venkatesan G. G. van Hellemondt
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The long-term survival of the cementless Spotorno CLS femoral component in patients aged > 50 years at the time of arthroplasty was investigated. Survivorship analysis of a consecutive series of 85 patients (100 hips; under 50 years of age at a mean follow-up of 18.4 years (16.3 to 20.8)) was performed. The clinical and radiographic outcomes were satisfactory. The overall rate of survival of the femoral component was 93.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 90.9 to 96.1) after 19 years. Survival with revision for aseptic loosening as the end point was 95.7% (95% CI 93.6 to 97.8%) at 19 years.

This study demonstrates an excellent long-term survival of the Spotorno CLS femoral component after 16 to 20 years in young patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:160–3.

G. Grammatopoulos G. E. R. Thomas H. Pandit D. J. Beard H. S. Gill D. W. Murray
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We assessed the orientation of the acetabular component in 1070 primary total hip arthroplasties with hard-on-soft, small diameter bearings, aiming to determine the size and site of the target zone that optimises outcome. Outcome measures included complications, dislocations, revisions and ΔOHS (the difference between the Oxford Hip Scores pre-operatively and five years post-operatively). A wide scatter of orientation was observed (2sd 15°). Placing the component within Lewinnek’s zone was not associated withimproved outcome. Of the different zone sizes tested (± 5°, ± 10° and ± 15°), only ± 15° was associated with a decreased rate of dislocation. The dislocation rate with acetabular components inside an inclination/anteversion zone of 40°/15° ± 15° was four times lower than those outside. The only zone size associated with statistically significant and clinically important improvement in OHS was ± 5°. The best outcomes (ΔOHS > 26) were achieved with a 45°/25° ± 5° zone.

This study demonstrated that with traditional technology surgeons can only reliably achieve a target zone of ±15°. As the optimal zone to diminish the risk of dislocation is also ±15°, surgeons should be able to achieve this. This is the first study to demonstrate that optimal orientation of the acetabular component improves the functional outcome. However, the target zone is small (± 5°) and cannot, with current technology, be consistently achieved.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:164–72.

M. Omar M. Ettinger M. Reichling M. Petri D. Guenther T. Gehrke C. Krettek P. Mommsen
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The aim of this study was to assess the role of synovial C-reactive protein (CRP) in the diagnosis of chronic periprosthetic hip infection. We prospectively collected synovial fluid from 89 patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty and measured synovial CRP, serum CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), synovial white blood cell (WBC) count and synovial percentages of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Patients were classified as septic or aseptic by means of clinical, microbiological, serum and synovial fluid findings. The high viscosity of the synovial fluid precluded the analyses in nine patients permitting the results in 80 patients to be studied. There was a significant difference in synovial CRP levels between the septic (n = 21) and the aseptic (n = 59) cohort. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve, a synovial CRP threshold of 2.5 mg/l had a sensitivity of 95.5% and specificity of 93.3%. The area under the curve was 0.96. Compared with serum CRP and ESR, synovial CRP showed a high diagnostic value. According to these preliminary results, synovial CRP may be a useful parameter in diagnosing chronic periprosthetic hip infection.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:173–6.

A. Felden G. Vaz S. Kreps P. Anract M. Hamadouche D. J. Biau
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Conventional cemented acetabular components are reported to have a high rate of failure when implanted into previously irradiated bone. We recommend the use of a cemented reconstruction with the addition of an acetabular reinforcement cross to improve fixation.

We reviewed a cohort of 45 patients (49 hips) who had undergone irradiation of the pelvis and a cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) with an acetabular reinforcement cross. All hips had received a minimum dose of 30 Gray (Gy) to treat a primary nearby tumour or metastasis. The median dose of radiation was 50 Gy (Q1 to Q3: 45 to 60; mean: 49.57, 32 to 72).

The mean follow-up after THA was 51 months (17 to 137). The cumulative probability of revision of the acetabular component for a mechanical reason was 0% (0 to 0%) at 24 months, 2.9% (0.2 to 13.3%) at 60 months and 2.9% (0.2% to 13.3%) at 120 months, respectively. One hip was revised for mechanical failure and three for infection.

Cemented acetabular components with a reinforcement cross provide good medium-term fixation after pelvic irradiation. These patients are at a higher risk of developing infection of their THA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:177–84.

B. J. L. Kendrick B. L. Kaptein E. R. Valstar H. S. Gill W. F. M. Jackson C. A. F. Dodd A. J. Price D. W. Murray
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The most common reasons for revision of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) are loosening and pain. Cementless components may reduce the revision rate. The aim of this study was to compare the fixation and clinical outcome of cementless and cemented Oxford UKAs.

A total of 43 patients were randomised to receive either a cemented or a cementless Oxford UKA and were followed for two years with radiostereometric analysis (RSA), radiographs aligned with the bone–implant interfaces and clinical scores.

The femoral components migrated significantly during the first year (mean 0.2 mm) but not during the second. There was no significant difference in the extent of migration between cemented and cementless femoral components in either the first or the second year. In the first year the cementless tibial components subsided significantly more than the cemented components (mean 0.28 mm (sd 0.17) vs. 0.09 mm (sd 0.19 mm)). In the second year, although there was a small amount of subsidence (mean 0.05 mm) there was no significant difference (p = 0.92) between cemented and cementless tibial components. There were no femoral radiolucencies. Tibial radiolucencies were narrow (< 1 mm) and were significantly (p = 0.02) less common with cementless (6 of 21) than cemented (13 of 21) components at two years. There were no complete radiolucencies with cementless components, whereas five of 21 (24%) cemented components had complete radiolucencies. The clinical scores at two years were not significantly different (p = 0.20).

As second-year migration is predictive of subsequent loosening, and as radiolucency is suggestive of reduced implant–bone contact, these data suggest that fixation of the cementless components is at least as good as, if not better than, that of cemented devices.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:185–91.

K. Bernhoff M. Björck
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We have investigated iatrogenic popliteal artery injuries (PAI) during non arthroplasty knee surgery regarding mechanism of injury, treatment and outcomes, and to identify successful strategies when injury occurs.

In all, 21 iatrogenic popliteal artery injuries in 21 patients during knee surgery other than knee arthroplasty were identified from the Swedish Vascular Registry (Swedvasc) between 1987 and 2011. Prospective registry data were supplemented with case-records, including long-term follow-up. In total, 13 patients suffered PAI during elective surgery and eight during urgent surgery such as fracture fixation or tumour resection. Nine injuries were detected intra-operatively, five within 12 to 48 hours and seven > 48 hours post-operatively (two days to 23 years).

There were 19 open vascular and two endovascular surgical repairs. Two patients died within six months of surgery. One patient required amputation. Only six patients had a complete recovery of whom had the vascular injury detected at time of injury and repaired by a vascular surgeon. Patients sustaining vascular injury during elective procedures are more likely to litigate (p = 0.029).

We conclude that outcomes are poorer when there is a delay of diagnosis and treatment, and that orthopaedic surgeons should develop strategies to detect PAI early and ensure rapid access to vascular surgical support.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:192–6.

R. F. Kallala I. S. Vanhegan M. S. Ibrahim S. Sarmah F. S. Haddad
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Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex procedure which carries both a greater risk for patients and greater cost for the treating hospital than does a primary TKA. As well as the increased cost of peri-operative investigations, blood transfusions, surgical instrumentation, implants and operating time, there is a well-documented increased length of stay which accounts for most of the actual costs associated with surgery.

We compared revision surgery for infection with revision for other causes (pain, instability, aseptic loosening and fracture). Complete clinical, demographic and economic data were obtained for 168 consecutive revision TKAs performed at a tertiary referral centre between 2005 and 2012.

Revision surgery for infection was associated with a mean length of stay more than double that of aseptic cases (21.5 vs 9.5 days, p < 0.0001). The mean cost of a revision for infection was more than three times that of an aseptic revision (£30 011 (sd 4514) vs £9655 (sd 599.7), p < 0.0001).

Current NHS tariffs do not fully reimburse the increased costs of providing a revision knee surgery service. Moreover, especially as greater costs are incurred for infected cases. These losses may adversely affect the provision of revision surgery in the NHS.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:197–201.

K. B. Lee N. Y. Cho H. W. Park J. K. Seon S. H. Lee
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Moderate to severe hallux valgus is conventionally treated by proximal metatarsal osteotomy. Several recent studies have shown that the indications for distal metatarsal osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure could be extended to include moderate to severe hallux valgus.

The purpose of this prospective randomised controlled trial was to compare the outcome of proximal and distal Chevron osteotomy in patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus.

The original study cohort consisted of 50 female patients (100 feet). Of these, four (8 feet) were excluded for lack of adequate follow-up, leaving 46 female patients (92 feet) in the study. The mean age of the patients was 53.8 years (30.1 to 62.1) and the mean duration of follow-up 40.2 months (24.1 to 80.5). After randomisation, patients underwent a proximal Chevron osteotomy on one foot and a distal Chevron osteotomy on the other.

At follow-up, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal interphalangeal (MTP-IP) score, patient satisfaction, post-operative complications, hallux valgus angle, first-second intermetatarsal angle, and tibial sesamoid position were similar in each group. Both procedures gave similar good clinical and radiological outcomes.

This study suggests that distal Chevron osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure is as effective and reliable a means of correcting moderate to severe hallux valgus as proximal Chevron osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:202–7.

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A. Chong N. Nazarian J. Chandrananth M. Tacey D. Shepherd P. Tran
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This study sought to determine the medium-term patient-reported and radiographic outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for hallux valgus. A total of 118 patients (162 feet) underwent surgery for hallux valgus between January 2008 and June 2009. The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ), a validated tool for the assessment of outcome after surgery for hallux valgus, was used and patient satisfaction was sought. The medical records and radiographs were reviewed retrospectively. At a mean of 5.2 years (4.7 to 6.0) post-operatively, the median combined MOXFQ score was 7.8 (IQR:0 to 32.8). The median domain scores for pain, walking/standing, and social interaction were 10 (IQR: 0 to 45), 0 (IQR: 0 to 32.1) and 6.3 (IQR: 0 to 25) respectively. A total of 119 procedures (73.9%, in 90 patients) were reported as satisfactory but only 53 feet (32.7%, in 43 patients) were completely asymptomatic. The mean (SD) correction of hallux valgus, intermetatarsal, and distal metatarsal articular angles was 18.5° (8.8°), 5.7° (3.3°), and 16.6° (8.8°), respectively. Multivariable regression analysis identified that an American Association of Anesthesiologists grade of > 1 (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR) = 1.67, p-value = 0.011) and recurrent deformity (IRR = 1.77, p-value = 0.003) were associated with significantly worse MOXFQ scores. No correlation was found between the severity of deformity, the type, or degree of surgical correction and the outcome. When using a validated outcome score for the assessment of outcome after surgery for hallux valgus, the long-term results are worse than expected when compared with the short- and mid-term outcomes, with 25.9% of patients dissatisfied at a mean follow-up of 5.2 years.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:208–14.

J. Soons H. A. Rakhorst M. Ruettermann A. J. M. Luijsterburg P. K. Bos O. T. Zöphel
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A total of seven patients (six men and one woman) with a defect in the Achilles tendon and overlying soft tissue underwent reconstruction using either a composite radial forearm flap (n = 3) or an anterolateral thigh flap (n = 4). The Achilles tendons were reconstructed using chimeric palmaris longus (n = 2) or tensor fascia lata (n = 2) flaps or transfer of the flexor hallucis longus tendon (n = 3). Surgical parameters such as the rate of complications and the time between the initial repair and flap surgery were analysed. Function was measured objectively by recording the circumference of the calf, the isometric strength of the plantar flexors and the range of movement of the ankle. The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) questionnaire was used as a patient-reported outcome measure. Most patients had undergone several previous operations to the Achilles tendon prior to flap surgery. The mean time to flap surgery was 14.3 months (2.1 to 40.7).

At a mean follow-up of 32.3 months (12.1 to 59.6) the circumference of the calf on the operated lower limb was reduced by a mean of 1.9 cm (sd 0.74) compared with the contralateral limb (p = 0.042). The mean strength of the plantar flexors on the operated lower limb was reduced to 88.9% of that of the contralateral limb (p = 0.043). There was no significant difference in the range of movement between the two sides (p = 0.317). The mean ATRS score was 72 points (sd 20.0). One patient who had an initial successful reconstruction developed a skin defect of the composite flap 12 months after free flap surgery and this resulted in recurrent infections, culminating in transtibial amputation 44 months after reconstruction.

These otherwise indicate that reconstruction of the Achilles tendon combined with flap cover results in a successful and functional reconstruction.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:215–20.

X. Zhang Y. Li S. Wen H. Zhu X. Shao Y. Yu
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We report a new surgical technique of open carpal tunnel release with subneural reconstruction of the transverse carpal ligament and compare this with isolated open and endoscopic carpal tunnel release.

Between December 2007 and October 2011, 213 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (70 male, 143 female; mean age 45.6 years; 29 to 67) were recruited from three different centres and were randomly allocated to three groups: group A, open carpal tunnel release with subneural reconstruction of the transverse carpal ligament (n = 68); group B, isolated open carpal tunnel release (n = 92); and group C, endoscopic carpal tunnel release (n = 53).

At a mean final follow-up of 24 months (22 to 26), we found no significant difference between the groups in terms of severity of symptoms or lateral grip strength. Compared with groups B and C, group A had significantly better functional status, cylindrical grip strength and pinch grip strength. There were significant differences in Michigan Hand Outcome scores between groups A and B, A and C, and B and C. Group A had the best functional status, cylindrical grip strength, pinch grip strength and Michigan Hand Outcome score.

Subneural reconstruction of the transverse carpal ligament during carpal tunnel decompression maximises hand strength by stabilising the transverse carpal arch.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:221–8

W-S. Choi H. J. Lee D-Y. Kim C-H. Lee B. G. Lee J-H. Kim K-H. Lee
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We performed a retrospective study to determine the effect of osteoporosis on the functional outcome of osteoporotic distal radial fractures treated with a volar locking plate. Between 2009 and 2012 a total of 90 postmenopausal women with an unstable fracture of the distal radius treated with a volar locking plate were studied. Changes in the radiological parameters of 51 patients with osteoporosis (group 1, mean age 66.9, mean T-score –3.16 (sd 0.56)) were not significantly different from those in 39 patients without osteoporosis (group 2, mean age 61.1, mean T-score –1.72 (sd 0.57)). The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score at final follow-up was 11.5 (sd 12.2) in group 1 and 10.5 (sd 13.25) in group 2. The mean modified Mayo wrist score at final follow-up was 79.0 (sd 14.04) in group 1 and 82.6 (sd 13.1) in group 2. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.35 for DASH score, p = 0.2 for modified Mayo wrist score). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that only the step-off of the radiocarpal joint was related to both a poor DASH and modified Mayo wrist score. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a weak negative relationship only between the T-score and the change in volar tilt (intraclass coefficient –0.26, p = 0.02).

We found that osteoporosis does not have a negative effect on the functional outcome and additional analysis did not show a correlation between T-score and outcome.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:229–34.

M. Prime B. Al-Obaidi Z. Safarfashandi Y. Lok R. Mobasheri M. Akmal
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This study examined spinal fractures in patients admitted to a Major Trauma Centre via two independent pathways, a major trauma (MT) pathway and a standard unscheduled non-major trauma (NMT) pathway. A total of 134 patients were admitted with a spinal fracture over a period of two years; 50% of patients were MT and the remainder NMT. MT patients were predominantly male, had a mean age of 48.8 years (13 to 95), commonly underwent surgery (62.7%), characteristically had fractures in the cervico-thoracic and thoracic regions and 50% had fractures of more than one vertebrae, which were radiologically unstable in 70%. By contrast, NMT patients showed an equal gender distribution, were older (mean 58.1 years; 12 to 94), required fewer operations (56.7%), characteristically had fractures in the lumbar region and had fewer multiple and unstable fractures. This level of complexity was reflected in the length of stay in hospital; MT patients receiving surgery were in hospital for a mean of three to four days longer than NMT patients. These results show that MT patients differ from their NMT counterparts and have an increasing complexity of spinal injury.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:235–9.

R. Ramaesh N. D. Clement L. Rennie C. Court-Brown M. S. Gaston
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Paediatric fractures are common and can cause significant morbidity. Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with an increased incidence of fractures in both adults and children, but little is known about the epidemiology of paediatric fractures. In this study we investigated the effect of social deprivation on the epidemiology of paediatric fractures.

We compiled a prospective database of all fractures in children aged < 16 years presenting to the study centre. Demographics, type of fracture, mode of injury and postcode were recorded. Socioeconomic status quintiles were assigned for each child using the Scottish Index for Multiple Deprivation (SIMD).

We found a correlation between increasing deprivation and the incidence of fractures (r = 1.00, p < 0.001). In the most deprived group the incidence was 2420/100 000/yr, which diminished to 1775/100 000/yr in the least deprived group.

The most deprived children were more likely to suffer a fracture as a result of a fall (odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, p < 0.0001), blunt trauma (OR = 1.5, p = 0.026) or a road traffic accident (OR = 2.7, p < 0.0001) than the least deprived.

These findings have important implications for public health and preventative measures.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:240–5.

B. D. Chatterton T. S. Moores S. Ahmad A. Cattell P. J. Roberts
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The aims of this study were to identify the early in-hospital mortality rate after hip fracture, identify factors associated with this mortality, and identify the cause of death in these patients. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 4426 patients admitted to our institution between the 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2013 with a hip fracture (1128 male (26%), mean age 82.0 years (60 to 105)).

Admissions increased annually, but despite this 30-day mortality decreased from 12.1% to 6.5%; 77% of these were in-hospital deaths. Male gender (odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 3.0), increasing age (age ≥ 91; OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.4 to 12.2) and comorbidity (American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3 to 5; OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.0 to 8.7) were independently and significantly associated with increased odds of in-hospital mortality. From 220 post-mortem reports, the most common causes of death were respiratory infections (35%), ischaemic heart disease (21%), and cardiac failure (13%). A sub-group of hip fracture patients at highest risk of early death can be identified with these risk factors, and the knowledge of the causes of death can be used to inform service improvements and the development of a more didactic care pathway, so that multidisciplinary intervention can be focused for this sub-group in order to improve their outcome.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:246–51.

H. Wafa R. J. Grimer K. Reddy L. Jeys A. Abudu S. R. Carter R. M. Tillman
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We conducted a case-control study to examine the merit of silver-coated tumour prostheses. We reviewed 85 patients with Agluna-treated (silver-coated) tumour implants treated between 2006 and 2011 and matched them with 85 control patients treated between 2001 and 2011 with identical, but uncoated, tumour prostheses.

In all, 106 men and 64 women with a mean age of 42.2 years (18.4 to 90.4) were included in the study. There were 50 primary reconstructions (29.4%); 79 one-stage revisions (46.5%) and 41 two-stage revisions for infection (24.1%).

The overall post-operative infection rate of the silver-coated group was 11.8% compared with 22.4% for the control group (p = 0.033, chi-square test). A total of seven of the ten infected prostheses in the silver-coated group were treated successfully with debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention compared with only six of the 19 patients (31.6%) in the control group (p = 0.048, chi-square test). Three patients in the silver-coated group (3.5%) and 13 controls (15.3%) had chronic periprosthetic infection (p = 0.009, chi-square test).

The overall success rates in controlling infection by two-stage revision in the silver-coated group was 85% (17/20) compared with 57.1% (12/21) in the control group (p = 0.05, chi-square test). The Agluna-treated endoprostheses were associated with a lower rate of early periprosthetic infection. These silver-treated implants were particularly useful in two-stage revisions for infection and in those patients with incidental positive cultures at the time of implantation of the prosthesis.

Debridement with antibiotic treatment and retention of the implant appeared to be more successful with silver-coated implants.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:252–7.

P. S. Young S. W. Bell A. Mahendra
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We report our experience of using a computer navigation system to aid resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumours of the pelvis and limbs and, where appropriate, their subsequent reconstruction. We also highlight circumstances in which navigation should be used with caution.

We resected a musculoskeletal tumour from 18 patients (15 male, three female, mean age of 30 years (13 to 75) using commercially available computer navigation software (Orthomap 3D) and assessed its impact on the accuracy of our surgery. Of nine pelvic tumours, three had a biological reconstruction with extracorporeal irradiation, four underwent endoprosthetic replacement (EPR) and two required no bony reconstruction. There were eight tumours of the bones of the limbs. Four diaphyseal tumours underwent biological reconstruction. Two patients with a sarcoma of the proximal femur and two with a sarcoma of the proximal humerus underwent extra-articular resection and, where appropriate, EPR. One soft-tissue sarcoma of the adductor compartment which involved the femur was resected and reconstructed using an EPR. Computer navigation was used to aid reconstruction in eight patients.

Histological examination of the resected specimens revealed tumour-free margins in all patients. Post-operative radiographs and CT showed that the resection and reconstruction had been carried out as planned in all patients where navigation was used. In two patients, computer navigation had to be abandoned and the operation was completed under CT and radiological control.

The use of computer navigation in musculoskeletal oncology allows accurate identification of the local anatomy and can define the extent of the tumour and proposed resection margins. Furthermore, it helps in reconstruction of limb length, rotation and overall alignment after resection of an appendicular tumour.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:258–64.

J. Mace R. W. Paton
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Over a 15-year prospective period, 201 infants with a clinically unstable hip at neonatal screening were subsequently reviewed in a ‘one stop’ clinic where they were assessed clinically and sonographically. Their mean age was 1.62 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 1.89). Clinical neonatal hip screening revealed a sensitivity of 62% (mean, 62.6 95%CI 50.9 to 74.3), specificity of 99.8% (mean, 99.8, 95% CI 99.7 to 99.8) and positive predictive value (PPV) of 24% (mean, 26.2, 95% CI 19.3 to 33.0). Static and dynamic sonography for Graf type IV dysplastic hips had a 15-year sensitivity of 77% (mean, 75.8 95% CI 66.9 to 84.6), specificity of 99.8% (mean, 99.8, 95% CI 99.8 to 99.8) and a PPV of 49% (mean, 55.1, 95% CI 41.6 to 68.5). There were 36 infants with an irreducible dislocation of the hip (0.57 per 1000 live births), including six that failed to resolve with neonatal splintage.

Most clinically unstable hips referred to a specialist clinic are female and stabilise spontaneously. Most irreducible dislocations are not identified from this neonatal instability group. There may be a small subgroup of females with instability of the hip which may be at risk of progression to irreducibility despite early treatment in a Pavlik harness.

A controlled study is required to assess the value of neonatal clinical screening programmes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:265-9.

A. Koch M. Jozwiak M. Idzior M. Molinska-Glura A. Szulc
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We investigated the incidence and risk factors for the development of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head in the course of treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and dislocation of the hip. All underwent open reduction, proximal femoral and Dega pelvic osteotomy. The inclusion criteria were: a predominantly spastic form of CP, dislocation of the hip (migration percentage, MP > 80%), Gross Motor Function Classification System, (GMFCS) grade IV to V, a primary surgical procedure and follow-up of > one year.

There were 81 consecutive children (40 girls and 41 boys) in the study. Their mean age was nine years (3.5 to 13.8) and mean follow-up was 5.5 years (1.6 to 15.1). Radiological evaluation included measurement of the MP, the acetabular index (AI), the epiphyseal shaft angle (ESA) and the pelvic femoral angle (PFA). The presence and grade of AVN were assessed radiologically according to the Kruczynski classification.

Signs of AVN (grades I to V) were seen in 79 hips (68.7%). A total of 23 hips (18%) were classified between grades III and V.

Although open reduction of the hip combined with femoral and Dega osteotomy is an effective form of treatment for children with CP and dislocation of the hip, there were signs of avascular necrosis in about two-thirds of the children. There was a strong correlation between post-operative pain and the severity of the grade of AVN.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:270–6.

General Orthopaedics
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R. P. Shetty M. Mathew J. Smith L. P. Morse J. A. Mehta B. J. Currie
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Little information is available about several important aspects of the treatment of melioidosis osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

We undertook a retrospective review of 50 patients with these conditions in an attempt to determine the effect of location of the disease, type of surgical intervention and duration of antibiotic treatment on outcome, particularly complications and relapse.

We found that there was a 27.5% risk of osteomyelitis of the adjacent bone in patients with septic arthritis in the lower limb. Patients with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis of an adjacent bone were in hospital significantly longer (p = 0.001), needed more operations (p = 0.031) and had a significantly higher rate of complications and re-presentation (p = 0.048).

More than half the patients (61%), most particularly those with multifocal bone and joint involvement, and those with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis of an adjacent bone who were treated operatively, needed more visits to theatre.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:277–82.

S. Gupta M. Maclean J. G. Anderson S. J. MacGregor R. M. D. Meek M. H. Grant
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High-intensity narrow-spectrum (HINS) light is a novel violet-blue light inactivation technology which kills bacteria through a photodynamic process, and has been shown to have bactericidal activity against a wide range of species. Specimens from patients with infected hip and knee arthroplasties were collected over a one-year period (1 May 2009 to 30 April 2010). A range of these microbial isolates were tested for sensitivity to HINS-light. During testing, suspensions of the pathogens were exposed to increasing doses of HINS-light (of 123mW/cm2 irradiance). Non-light exposed control samples were also used. The samples were then plated onto agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours before enumeration. Complete inactivation (greater than 4-log10 reduction) was achieved for all of the isolates. The typical inactivation curve showed a slow initial reaction followed by a rapid period of inactivation. The doses of HINS-light required ranged between 118 and 2214 J/cm2. Gram-positive bacteria were generally found to be more susceptible than Gram-negative.

As HINS-light uses visible wavelengths, it can be safely used in the presence of patients and staff. This unique feature could lead to its possible use in the prevention of infection during surgery and post-operative dressing changes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:283–8.