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Volume 97-B, Issue 11 November 2015

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F. S. Haddad
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Z. Alshameeri R. Bajekal K. Varty V. Khanduja
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Vascular injuries during total hip arthroplasty (THA) are rare but when they occur, have serious consequences. These have traditionally been managed with open exploration and repair, but more recently there has been a trend towards percutaneous endovascular management.

We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess if this change in trend has led to an improvement in the overall reported rates of morbidity and mortality during the last 22 years in comparison with the reviews of the literature published previously.

We found a total of 61 articles describing 138 vascular injuries in 124 patients. Injuries because of a laceration were the most prevalent (n = 51, 44%) and the most common presenting feature, when recorded, was bleeding (n = 41, 53.3%). Delay in diagnosis was associated with the type of vascular lesion (p < 0.001) and the clinical presentation (p = 0.002).

Open exploration and repair was the most common form of management, however percutaneous endovascular intervention was used in one third of the injuries and more constantly during the last 13 years.

The main overall reported complications included death (n = 9, 7.3%), amputation (n = 2, 1.6%), and persistent ischaemia (n = 9, 7.3%). When compared with previous reviews there was a similar rate of mortality but lower rates of amputation and permanent disability, especially in patients managed by endovascular strategies.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1447–55.

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R. Gandhi A. V. Perruccio S. Kakar F. S. Haddad
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Recently, several high impact randomised controlled trials have been published suggesting no greater benefit from orthopaedic surgery over conservative treatment, or limited surgical intervention. These studies can have profound effects on clinical practice, leading to the abandonment of previously widely-used operations.

How do surgeons who believe these operations are beneficial over conservative treatment rationalise these findings, and justify their use with hospital administrators and health care funders who require evidence for the value and efficacy of surgical treatment?

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1456–7.

J. Langlois F. Atlan C. Scemama J. P. Courpied M. Hamadouche
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Most published randomised controlled trials which compare the rates of wear of conventional and cross-linked (XL) polyethylene (PE) in total hip arthroplasty (THA) have described their use with a cementless acetabular component.

We conducted a prospective randomised study to assess the rates of penetration of two distinct types of PE in otherwise identical cemented all-PE acetabular components.

A total of 100 consecutive patients for THA were randomised to receive an acetabular component which had been either highly XL then remelted or moderately XL then annealed.

After a minimum of eight years follow-up, 38 hips in the XL group and 30 hips in the annealed group had complete data (mean follow-up of 9.1 years (7.6 to 10.7) and 8.7 years (7.2 to 10.2), respectively). In the XL group, the steady state rate of penetration from one year onwards was -0.0002 mm/year (sd 0.108): in the annealed group it was 0.1382 mm/year (sd 0.129) (Mann–Whitney U test, p < 0.001). No complication specific to either material was recorded.

These results show that the yearly linear rate of femoral head penetration can be significantly reduced by using a highly XLPE cemented acetabular component.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1458–62.

B. A. Jonsson T. Kadar L. I. Havelin K. Haugan B. Espehaug K. Indrekvam O. Furnes G. Hallan
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We report the five-year outcome of a randomised controlled trial which used radiostereometric analysis (RSA) to assess the influence of surface oxidised zirconium (OxZr, Oxinium) on polyethylene wear in vivo.

A total of 120 patients, 85 women and 35 men with a mean age of 70 years (59 to 80) who were scheduled for primary cemented total hip arthroplasty were randomly allocated to four study groups. Patients were blinded to their group assignment and received either a conventional polyethylene (CPE) or a highly cross-linked (HXL) acetabular component of identical design. On the femoral side patients received a 28 mm head made of either cobalt-chromium (CoCr) or OxZr.

The proximal head penetration (wear) was measured with repeated RSA examinations over five years. Clinical outcome was measured using the Harris hip score.

There was no difference in polyethylene wear between the two head materials when used with either of the two types of acetabular component (p = 0.3 to 0.6). When comparing the two types of polyethylene there was a significant difference in favour of HXLPE, regardless of the head material used (p < 0.001).

In conclusion, we found no advantage of OxZr over CoCr in terms of polyethylene wear after five years of follow-up. Our findings do not support laboratory results which have shown a reduced rate of wear with OxZr. They do however add to the evidence on the better resistance to wear of HXLPE over CPE.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1463–9.

E. Selvarajah G. Hooper K. Grabowski C. Frampton T. B. F. Woodfield G. Inglis
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Polyethylene wear debris can cause osteolysis and the failure of total hip arthroplasty. We present the five-year wear rates of a highly cross-linked polyethylene (X3) bearing surface when used in conjunction with a 36 mm ceramic femoral head.

This was a prospective study of a cohort of 100 THAs in 93 patients. Pain and activity scores were measured pre- and post-operatively. Femoral head penetration was measured at two months, one year, two years and at five years using validated edge-detecting software (PolyWare Auto).

At a mean of 5.08 years (3.93 to 6.01), 85 hips in 78 patients were available for study. The mean age of these patients was 59.08 years (42 to 73, the mean age of males (n = 34) was 59.15 years, and females (n = 44) was 59.02 years). All patients had significant improvement in their functional scores (p < 0.001). The steady state two-dimensional linear wear rate was 0.109 mm/year. The steady state volumetric wear rate was 29.61 mm3/year. No significant correlation was found between rate of wear and age (p = 0.34), acetabular component size (p = 0.12) or clinical score (p = 0.74).

Our study shows low steady state wear rates at five years in X3 highly cross-linked polyethylene in conjunction with a 36 mm ceramic femoral head. The linear wear rate was almost identical to the osteolysis threshold of 0.1 mm/year recommended in the literature.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1470–4.

C. Inngul R. Blomfeldt S. Ponzer A. Enocson
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The aim of this randomised controlled study was to compare functional and radiological outcomes between modern cemented and uncemented hydroxyapatite coated stems after one year in patients treated surgically for a fracture of the femoral neck. A total of 141 patients aged > 65 years were included. Patients were randomised to be treated with a cemented Exeter stem or an uncemented Bimetric stem. The patients were reviewed at four and 12 months.

The cemented group performed better than the uncemented group for the Harris hip score (78 vs 70.7, p = 0.004) at four months and for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assesment Questionnaire dysfunction score at four (29.8 vs 39.2, p = 0.007) and 12 months (22.3 vs 34.9, p = 0.001). The mean EQ-5D index score was better in the cemented group at four (0.68 vs 0.53, p = 0.001) and 12 months (0.75 vs 0.58, p = < 0.001) follow-up. There were nine intra-operative fractures in the uncemented group and none in the cemented group.

In conclusion, our data do not support the use of an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated stem for the treatment of displaced fractures of the femoral neck in the elderly.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1475–80.

H. C. van der Veen I. H. F. Reininga W. P. Zijlstra M. F. Boomsma S. K. Bulstra J. J. A. M. van Raay
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We compared the incidence of pseudotumours after large head metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) with that after conventional metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA and assessed the predisposing factors to pseudotumour formation.

From a previous randomised controlled trial which compared large head (38 mm to 60 mm) cementless MoM THA with conventional head (28 mm) cementless MoP THA, 93 patients (96 THAs: 41 MoM (21 males, 20 females, mean age of 64 years, standard deviation (sd) 4) and 55 MoP (25 males, 30 females, mean age of 65 years, sd 5) were recruited after a mean follow-up of 50 months (36 to 64).

The incidence of pseudotumours, measured using a standardised CT protocol was 22 (53.7%) after MoM THA and 12 (21.8%) after MoP THA. Women with a MoM THA were more likely to develop a pseudotumour than those with a MoP THA (15 vs 7, odds ratio (OR) = 13.4, p < 0.001). There was a similar incidence of pseudotumours in men with MoM THAs and those with MoP THAs (7 vs 5, OR = 2.1, p = 0.30). Elevated cobalt levels (≥ 5 microgram/L) were only associated with pseudotumours in women with a MoM THA. There was no difference in mean Oxford and Harris hip scores between patients with a pseudotumour and those without.

Contrary to popular belief, pseudotumours occur frequently around MoP THAs. Women with a MoM THA and an elevated cobalt level are at greatest risk. In this study, pseudotumours had no effect on the functional outcome after either large head MoM or conventional MoP THA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1481–7.

R. J. Tansey H. Benjamin-Laing S. Jassim K. Liekens A. Shankar F. S. Haddad
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Hip and groin injuries are common in athletes who take part in high level sports. Adductor muscle tendon injuries represent a small but important number of these injuries. Avulsion of the tendons attached to the symphysis pubis has previously been described: these can be managed both operatively and non-operatively. We describe an uncommon variant of this injury, namely complete avulsion of the adductor sleeve complex: this includes adductor longus, pectineus and rectus abdominis. We go on to describe a surgical technique which promotes a full return to the pre-injury level of sporting activity.

Over a period of ten years, 15 high-level athletes with an MRI-confirmed acute adductor complex avulsion injury (six to 34 days old) underwent surgical repair. The operative procedure consisted of anatomical re-attachment of the avulsed tissues in each case and mesh reinforcement of the posterior inguinal wall in seven patients. All underwent a standardised rehabilitation programme, which was then individualised to be sport-specific.

One patient developed a superficial wound infection, which was successfully treated with antibiotics. Of the 15 patients, four complained of transient local numbness which resolved in all cases. All patients (including seven elite athletes) returned to their previous level of participation in sport.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1488–92.

H. Pandit T. W. Hamilton C. Jenkins S. J. Mellon C. A. F. Dodd D. W. Murray
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This prospective study reports the 15-year survival and ten-year functional outcome of a consecutive series of 1000 minimally invasive Phase 3 Oxford medial UKAs (818 patients, 393 men, 48%, 425 women, 52%, mean age 66 years; 32 to 88). These were implanted by two surgeons involved with the design of the prosthesis to treat anteromedial osteoarthritis and spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, which are recommended indications. Patients were prospectively identified and followed up independently for a mean of 10.3 years (5.3 to 16.6).

At ten years, the mean Oxford Knee Score was 40 (standard deviation (sd) 9; 2 to 48): 79% of knees (349) had an excellent or good outcome. There were 52 implant-related re-operations at a mean of 5.5 years (0.2 to 14.7). The most common reasons for re-operation were arthritis in the lateral compartment (2.5%, 25 knees), bearing dislocation (0.7%, seven knees) and unexplained pain (0.7%, seven knees). When all implant-related re-operations were considered as failures, the ten-year rate of survival was 94% (95% confidence interval (CI) 92 to 96) and the 15-year survival rate 91% (CI 83 to 98). When failure of the implant was the endpoint the 15-year survival was 99% (CI 96 to 100).

This is the only large series of minimally invasive UKAs with 15-year survival data. The results support the continued use of minimally invasive UKA for the recommended indications.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1493–99.

J. R. Martin C. D. Watts M. J. Taunton
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Bariatric surgery has been advocated as a means of reducing body mass index (BMI) and the risks associated with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, this has not been proved clinically. In order to determine the impact of bariatric surgery on the outcome of TKA, we identified a cohort of 91 TKAs that were performed in patients who had undergone bariatric surgery (bariatric cohort). These were matched with two separate cohorts of patients who had not undergone bariatric surgery. One was matched 1:1 with those with a higher pre-bariatric BMI (high BMI group), and the other was matched 1:2 based on those with a lower pre-TKA BMI (low BMI group).

In the bariatric group, the mean BMI before bariatric surgery was 51.1 kg/m2 (37 to 72), which improved to 37.3 kg/m2 (24 to 59) at the time of TKA. Patients in the bariatric group had a higher risk of, and worse survival free of, re-operation (hazard ratio (HR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 6.2; p = 0.02) compared with the high BMI group. Furthermore, the bariatric group had a higher risk of, and worse survival free of re-operation (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3; p = 0.2) and revision (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1 to 6.5; p = 0.04) compared with the low BMI group.

While bariatric surgery reduced the BMI in our patients, more analysis is needed before recommending bariatric surgery before TKA in obese patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1501–5.

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A. D. Liddle H. Pandit A. Judge D. W. Murray
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Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has advantages over total knee arthroplasty but national joint registries report a significantly higher revision rate for UKA. As a result, most surgeons are highly selective, offering UKA only to a small proportion (up to 5%) of patients requiring arthroplasty of the knee, and consequently performing few each year. However, surgeons with large UKA practices have the lowest rates of revision. The overall size of the practice is often beyond the surgeon’s control, therefore case volume may only be increased by broadening the indications for surgery, and offering UKA to a greater proportion of patients requiring arthroplasty of the knee.

The aim of this study was to determine the optimal UKA usage (defined as the percentage of knee arthroplasty practice comprised by UKA) to minimise the rate of revision in a sample of 41 986 records from the for National Joint Registry for England and Wales (NJR).

UKA usage has a complex, non-linear relationship with the rate of revision. Acceptable results are achieved with the use of 20% or more. Optimal results are achieved with usage between 40% and 60%. Surgeons with the lowest usage (up to 5%) have the highest rates of revision. With optimal usage, using the most commonly used implant, five-year survival is 96% (95% confidence interval (CI) 94.9 to 96.0), compared with 90% (95% CI 88.4 to 91.6) with low usage (5%) previously considered ideal.

The rate of revision of UKA is highest with low usage, implying the use of narrow, and perhaps inappropriate, indications. The widespread use of broad indications, using appropriate implants, would give patients the advantages of UKA, without the high rate of revision.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1506–11.

P. M. Courtney C. M. Melnic J. Gutsche E. L. Hume G-C. Lee
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Older patients with multiple medical co-morbidities are increasingly being offered and undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). These patients are more likely to require intensive care support, following surgery. We prospectively evaluated the need for intensive care admission and intervention in a consecutive series of 738 patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty procedures. The mean age was 60.6 years (18 to 91; 440 women, 298 men. Risk factors, correlating with the need for critical care intervention, according to published guidelines, were analysed to identify high-risk patients who would benefit from post-operative critical care monitoring. A total of 50 patients (6.7%) in our series required critical care level interventions during their hospital stay. Six independent multivariate clinical predictors were identified (p < 0.001) including a history of congestive heart failure (odds ratio (OR) 24.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.51 to 61.91), estimated blood loss >  1000 mL (OR 17.36, 95% CI 5.36 to 56.19), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (13.90, 95% CI 4.78 to 40.36), intra-operative use of vasopressors (OR 8.10, 95% CI 3.23 to 20.27), revision hip arthroplasty (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.04 to 7.04) and body mass index > 35 kg/m2 (OR 2.70, 95% CI 123 to 5.94). The model was then validated against an independent, previously published data set of 1594 consecutive patients. The use of this risk stratification model can be helpful in predicting which high-risk patients would benefit from a higher level of monitoring and care after elective TJA and aid hospitals in allocating precious critical care resources.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1512–18.

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S. Salih A. Paskins T. Nichol T. Smith A. Hamer
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We investigated whether the indentation of bone cement spacers used in revision of infected joint arthroplasty with a MacDonald dissector increased the elution of antibiotic in vitro. A total of 24 cement discs containing either 0.17 g (0.88% w/w), 0.25 g (1.41% w/w), or 0.33 g (1.75% w/w) gentamicin of constant size were made. Of these, 12 were indented with the dissector. Each disc was immersed in ammonium acetate buffer in a sealed container, and fluid from each container was sampled at zero, one, three, six, 24, 48 and 72 hours and at one, and two weeks. The concentration of gentamicin in the fluid was analysed using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

The fluid sampled at 72 hours from the indented discs containing 0.17 g gentamicin (0.88% w/w) contained a mean of 113 mcg/ml (90.12 to 143.5) compared with 44.5 mcg/ml (44.02 to 44.90) in the fluid sampled from the plain discs (p = 0.012). In discs containing 0.33 g gentamicin (1.75% w/w), the concentration eluted from the indented discs at 72 hours was a mean of 316 mcg/ml (223 to 421) compared with a mean of 118 mcg/ml (100 to 140) from the plain discs (p < 0.001).

At two weeks, these significant differences persisted. At nine weeks the indented discs eluted a greater concentration for all gentamicin doses, but the difference was only significant for the discs containing 0.17 g (0.88% w/w, p = 0.006). However if the area under the curve is taken as a measure of the total antibiotic eluted, the indented discs eluted more gentamicin than the plain discs for the 0.17 g (0.88% w/w, p = 0.031), the 0.25 g (1.41% w/w, p < 0.001) and the 0.33 g (1.75% w/w, p < 0.001) discs.

When preparing antibiotic spacers for use in staged revision arthroplasty surgery we recommend indenting the spacer with a MacDonald dissector to increase the elution of antibiotic.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1519–24.

J. Cho Y. Yi T. K. Ahn H. J. Choi C. H. Park D. I. Chun J. S. Lee W. C. Lee
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in sagittal tibiotalar alignment after total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) for osteoarthritis and to investigate factors affecting the restoration of alignment.

This retrospective study included 119 patients (120 ankles) who underwent three component TAA using the Hintegra prosthesis. A total of 63 ankles had anterior displacement of the talus before surgery (group A), 49 had alignment in the normal range (group B), and eight had posterior displacement of the talus (group C). Ankles in group A were further sub-divided into those in whom normal alignment was restored following TAA (41 ankles) and those with persistent displacement (22 ankles). Radiographic and clinical results were assessed.

Pre-operatively, the alignment in group A was significantly more varus than that in group B, and the posterior slope of the tibial plafond was greater (p < 0.01 in both cases). The posterior slope of the tibial component was strongly associated with restoration of alignment: ankles in which the alignment was restored had significantly less posterior slope (p < 0.001).

An anteriorly translated talus was restored to a normal position after TAA in most patients. We suggest that surgeons performing TAA using the Hintegra prosthesis should aim to insert the tibial component at close to 90° relative to the axis of the tibia, hence reducing posterior soft-tissue tension and allowing restoration of normal tibiotalar alignment following surgery.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1525–32.

X. Zhang X. Shao W. Huang H. Zhu Y. Yu
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We report a new surgical technique for the treatment of traumatic dislocation of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint of the thumb. This is a tenodesis which uses part of the flexor carpi radialis.

Between January 2010 and August 2013, 13 patients with traumatic instability of the CMC joint of the thumb were treated using this technique. The mean time interval between injury and ligament reconstruction was 13 days (0 to 42). The mean age of the patients at surgery was 38 years: all were male.

At a mean final follow-up of 26 months (24 to 29), no patient experienced any residual instability. The mean total palmar abduction of the CMC joint of the thumb was 61° and the mean radial abduction 65° The mean measurements for the uninjured hand were 66° (60° to 73°) and 68° (60° to 75°), respectively. The mean Kapandji thumb opposition score was 8.5° (8° to 9°). The mean pinch and grip strengths of the hand were 6.7 kg (3.4 to 8.2) and 40 kg (25 to 49), respectively. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score was 3 (1 to 6). Based on the Smith and Cooney score, we obtained a mean score of 85 (75 to 95), which included four excellent, seven good, and two fair results.

Our technique offers an alternative method of treating traumatic dislocation of the CMC joint of the thumb: it produces a stable joint and acceptable hand function.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1533–8.

H. Lenoir M. Chammas J. P. Micallef C. Lazerges T. Waitzenegger B. Coulet
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Determining and accurately restoring the flexion-extension axis of the elbow is essential for functional recovery after total elbow arthroplasty (TEA). We evaluated the effect of morphological features of the elbow on variations of alignment of the components at TEA. Morphological and positioning variables were compared by systematic CT scans of 22 elbows in 21 patients after TEA.

There were five men and 16 women, and the mean age was 63 years (38 to 80). The mean follow-up was 22 months (11 to 44).

The anterior offset and version of the humeral components were significantly affected by the anterior angulation of the humerus (p = 0.052 and p = 0.004, respectively). The anterior offset and version of the ulnar components were strongly significantly affected by the anterior angulation of the ulna (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001).

The closer the anterior angulation of the ulna was to the joint, the lower the ulnar anterior offset (p = 0.030) and version of the ulnar component (p = 0.010). The distance from the joint to the varus angulation also affected the lateral offset of the ulnar component (p = 0.046).

Anatomical variations at the distal humerus and proximal ulna affect the alignment of the components at TEA. This is explained by abutment of the stems of the components and is particularly severe when there are substantial deformities or the deformities are close to the joint.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1539–45.

H. J. Kim J. W. Park B. S. Chang C. K. Lee J. S. Yeom
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Pain catastrophising is an adverse coping mechanism, involving an exaggerated response to anticipated or actual pain.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of pain ‘catastrophising’, as measured using the pain catastrophising scale (PCS), on treatment outcomes after surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS).

A total of 138 patients (47 men and 91 women, mean age 65.9; 45 to 78) were assigned to low (PCS score < 25, n = 68) and high (PCS score ≥ 25, n = 70) PCS groups. The primary outcome measure was the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) 12 months after surgery. Secondary outcome measures included the ODI and visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, which were recorded at each assessment conducted during the 12-month follow-up period

The overall changes in the ODI and VAS for back and leg pain over a 12-month period were significantly different between the groups (ODI, p < 0.001; VAS for back pain, p < 0.001; VAS for leg pain, p = 0.040). The ODI and VAS for back and leg pain significantly decreased over time after surgery in both groups (p < 0.001 for all three variables). The patterns of change in the ODI and VAS for back pain during the follow-up period significantly differed between the two groups, suggesting that the PCS group is a potential treatment moderator. However, there was no difference in the ODI and VAS for back and leg pain between the low and high PCS groups 12 months after surgery.

In terms of minimum clinically important differences in ODI scores (12.8), 22 patients (40.7%) had an unsatisfactory surgical outcome in the low PCS group and 16 (32.6%) in the high PCS group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.539).

Pre-operative catastrophising did not always result in a poor outcome 12 months after surgery, which indicates that this could moderate the efficacy of surgery for LSS.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1546–54.

M. K. Kwan C. K. Chiu C. K. Lee C. Y. W. Chan
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Percutaneous placement of pedicle screws is a well-established technique, however, no studies have compared percutaneous and open placement of screws in the thoracic spine. The aim of this cadaveric study was to compare the accuracy and safety of these techniques at the thoracic spinal level. A total of 288 screws were inserted in 16 (eight cadavers, 144 screws in percutaneous and eight cadavers, 144 screws in open). Pedicle perforations and fractures were documented subsequent to wide laminectomy followed by skeletalisation of the vertebrae. The perforations were classified as grade 0: no perforation, grade 1: < 2 mm perforation, grade 2: 2 mm to 4 mm perforation and grade 3: > 4 mm perforation. In the percutaneous group, the perforation rate was 11.1% with 15 (10.4%) grade 1 and one (0.7%) grade 2 perforations. In the open group, the perforation rate was 8.3% (12 screws) and all were grade 1. This difference was not significant (p = 0.45). There were 19 (13.2%) pedicle fractures in the percutaneous group and 21 (14.6%) in the open group (p = 0.73). In summary, the safety of percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine between T4 and T12 is similar to that of the conventional open technique.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1555–61.

A. Ersen A. C. Atalar F. Birisik Y. Saglam M. Demirhan
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Only a few randomised, controlled studies have compared different non-operative methods of treatment of mid-shaft fractures of the clavicle.

In this prospective, randomised controlled study of 60 participants (mean age 31.6 years; 15 to 75) we compared the broad arm sling with the figure of eight bandage for the treatment of mid-shaft clavicle fractures. Our outcome measures were pain, Constant and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores and radiological union.

The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score on the first day after treatment was significantly higher (VAS 1 6.8; 4 to 9) in the figure of eight bandage group than the broad arm sling group (VAS 1 5.6; 3 to 8, p = 0.034). A mean shortening of 9 mm (3 to 17) was measured in the figure of eight bandage group, versus 7.5 mm (0 to 24) in the broad arm sling group (p = 0.30).

The application of the figure of eight bandage is more difficult than of the broad arm sling, and patients experience more pain during the first day when treated with this option. We suggest the broad arm sling is preferable because of the reduction of early pain and ease of application.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1562–5.

A. A. Salunke Y. Chen X. Chen J. H. Tan G. Singh B. C. Tai L. W. Khin M. E. Puhaindran
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We investigated whether the presence of a pathological fracture increased the risk of local recurrence in patients with a giant cell tumour (GCT) of bone. We also assessed if curettage is still an appropriate form of treatment in the presence of a pathological fracture. We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of papers which reported outcomes in patients with a GCT with and without a pathological fracture at presentation. We computed the odds ratio (OR) of local recurrence in those with and without a pathological fracture.

We selected 19 eligible papers for final analysis. This included 3215 patients, of whom 580 (18.0%) had a pathological fracture. The pooled OR for local recurrence between patients with and without a pathological fracture was 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 1.67, p = 0.854). Amongst the subgroup of patients who were treated with curettage, the pooled OR for local recurrence was 1.23 (95% CI 0.75 to 2.01, p = 0.417).

A post hoc sample size calculation showed adequate power for both comparisons.

There is no difference in local recurrence rates between patients who have a GCT of bone with and without a pathological fracture at the time of presentation. The presence of a pathological fracture should not preclude the decision to perform curettage as carefully selected patients who undergo curettage can have similar outcomes in terms of local recurrence to those without such a fracture.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1566–71.

Children's Orthopaedics
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K. J. Donnelly K. W. Chan A. P. Cosgrove
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Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) should be diagnosed as early as possible to optimise treatment. The current United Kingdom recommendations for the selective screening of DDH include a clinical examination at birth and at six weeks. In Northern Ireland babies continue to have an assessment by a health visitor at four months of age. As we continue to see late presentations of DDH, beyond one year of age, we hypothesised that a proportion had missed an opportunity for earlier diagnosis. We expect those who presented to our service with Tonnis grade III or IV hips and decreased abduction would have had clinical signs at their earlier assessments.

We performed a retrospective review of all patients born in Northern Ireland between 2008 and 2010 who were diagnosed with DDH after their first birthday. There were 75 856 live births during the study period of whom 645 children were treated for DDH (8.5 per 1000). The minimum follow-up of our cohort from birth, to detect late presentation, was four years and six months. Of these, 32 children (33 hips) were diagnosed after their first birthday (0.42 per 1000).

With optimum application of our selective screening programme 21 (65.6%) of these children had the potential for an earlier diagnosis, which would have reduced the incidence of late diagnosis to 0.14 per 1000. As we saw a peak in diagnosis between three and five months our findings support the continuation of the four month health visitor check. Our study adds further information to the debate regarding selective versus universal screening.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1572–6.

H. I. Balci M. Kocaoglu C. Sen L. Eralp S. G. Batibay K. Bilsel
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A retrospective study was performed in 18 patients with achondroplasia, who underwent bilateral humeral lengthening between 2001 and 2013, using monorail external fixators. The mean age was ten years (six to 15) and the mean follow-up was 40 months (12 to 104).

The mean disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score fell from 32.3 (20 to 40) pre-operatively to 9.4 (6 to 14) post-operatively (p = 0.037). A mean lengthening of 60% (40% to 95%) was required to reach the goal of independent perineal hygiene. One patient developed early consolidation, and fractures occurred in the regenerate bone of four humeri in three patients. There were three transient radial nerve palsies.

Humeral lengthening increases the independence of people with achondroplasia and is not just a cosmetic procedure.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1577–81.

T. Suzuki A. Seki T. Nakamura H. Ikegami S. Takayama M. Nakamura M. Matsumoto K. Sato
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This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the outcomes of re-dislocation of the radial head after corrective osteotomy for chronic dislocation. A total of 12 children with a mean age of 11 years (5 to 16), with further dislocation of the radial head after corrective osteotomy of the forearm, were followed for a mean of five years (2 to 10). Re-operations were performed for radial head re-dislocation in six children, while the other six did not undergo re-operation (‘non-re-operation group’). The active range of movement (ROM) of their elbows was evaluated before and after the first operation, and at the most recent follow-up.

In the re-operation group, there were significant decreases in extension, pronation, and supination when comparing the ROM following the corrective osteotomy and following re-operation (p < 0.05).

The children who had not undergone re-operation achieved a better ROM than those who had undergone re-operation.

There was a significant difference in mean pronation (76° vs 0°) between the non- re-operation and the re-operation group (p = 0.002), and a trend towards increases in mean flexion (133° vs 111°), extension (0° vs 23°), and supination (62° vs 29°). We did not find a clear benefit for re-operation in children with a re-dislocation following corrective osteotomy for chronic dislocation of the radial head.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1582–7.

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P. Klenerman T. Smith F. Horan A. C. Ross
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