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Volume 96-B, Issue 6 June 2014

C. P. Duncan F. S. Haddad

Periprosthetic fractures are an increasingly common complication following joint replacement. The principles which underpin their evaluation and treatment are common across the musculoskeletal system. The Unified Classification System proposes a rational approach to treatment, regardless of the bone that is broken or the joint involved.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:713–16.

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F. Altaf M. K. S. Heran L. F. Wilson

Back pain is a common symptom in children and adolescents. Here we review the important causes, of which defects and stress reactions of the pars interarticularis are the most common identifiable problems. More serious pathology, including malignancy and infection, needs to be excluded when there is associated systemic illness. Clinical evaluation and management may be difficult and always requires a thorough history and physical examination. Diagnostic imaging is obtained when symptoms are persistent or severe. Imaging is used to reassure the patient, relatives and carers, and to guide management.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:717–23.

J. Murgier N. Reina E. Cavaignac A. Espié X. Bayle-Iniguez P. Chiron

Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE) is one of the known causes of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of FAI cases considered to be secondary to SUFE-like deformities.

We performed a case–control study on 96 hips (75 patients: mean age 38 years (15.4 to 63.5)) that had been surgically treated for FAI between July 2005 and May 2011. Three independent observers measured the lateral view head–neck index (LVHNI) to detect any SUFE-like deformity on lateral hip radiographs taken in 45° flexion, 45° abduction and 30° external rotation. A control group of 108 healthy hips in 54 patients was included for comparison (mean age 36.5 years (24.3 to 53.9).

The impingement group had a mean LVHNI of 7.6% (16.7% to -2%) versus 3.2% in the control group (10.8% to -3%) (p < 0.001). A total of 42 hips (43.7%) had an index value > 9% in the impingement group versus only six hips (5.5%) in the control group (p < 0.001). The impingement group had a mean α angle of 73.9° (96.2° to 53.4°) versus 48.2° (65° to 37°) in the control group (p < 0.001).

Our results suggest that SUFE is one of the primary aetiological factors for cam-type FAI.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:724–9.

A. M. Imbuldeniya W. K. Walter B. A. Zicat W. L. Walter

We report on 397 consecutive revision total hip replacements in 371 patients with a mean clinical and radiological follow-up of 12.9 years (10 to 17.7). The mean age at surgery was 69 years (37 to 93). A total of 28 patients (8%) underwent further revision, including 16 (4%) femoral components. In all 223 patients (56%, 233 hips) died without further revision and 20 patients (5%, 20 hips) were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining patients, 209 (221 hips) were available for clinical assessment and 194 (205 hips) for radiological review at mean follow-up of 12.9 years (10 to 17.7).

The mean Harris Hip Score improved from 58.7 (11 to 92) points to 80.7 (21 to 100) (p <  0.001) and the mean Merle d’Aubigné and Postel hip scores at final follow-up were 4.9 (2 to 6), 4.5 (2 to 6) and 4.3 (2 to 6), respectively for pain, mobility and function. Radiographs showed no lucencies around 186 (90.7%) femoral stems with stable bony ingrowth seen in 199 stems (97%). The survival of the S-ROM femoral stem at 15 years with revision for any reason as the endpoint was 90.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85.7 to 93.8) and with revision for aseptic loosening as the endpoint 99.3% (95% CI 97.2 to 99.8).

We have shown excellent long-term survivorship and good clinical outcome of a cementless hydroxyapatite proximally-coated modular femoral stem in revision hip surgery.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:730–6.

V. Eggerding K. S. R. van Kuijk B. L. van Meer S. M. A. Bierma-Zeinstra E. R. A. van Arkel M. Reijman J. H. Waarsing D. E. Meuffels

We have investigated whether shape of the knee can predict the clinical outcome of patients after an anterior cruciate ligament rupture. We used statistical shape modelling to measure the shape of the knee joint of 182 prospectively followed patients on lateral and Rosenberg view radiographs of the knee after a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. Subsequently, we associated knee shape with the International Knee Documentation Committee subjective score at two years follow-up. The mean age of patients was 31 years (21 to 51), the majority were male (n = 121) and treated operatively (n = 135). We found two modes (shape variations) that were significantly associated with the subjective score at two years: one for the operatively treated group (p = 0.002) and one for the non-operatively treated group (p = 0.003). Operatively treated patients who had higher subjective scores had a smaller intercondylar notch and a smaller width of the intercondylar eminence. Non-operatively treated patients who scored higher on the subjective score had a more pyramidal intercondylar notch as opposed to one that was more dome-shaped. We conclude that the shape of the femoral notch and the intercondylar eminence is predictive of clinical outcome two years after a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:737–42.

Y. S. Shin K. H. Ro J. H. Jeon D. H. Lee

We used immediate post-operative in vivo three-dimensional computed tomography to compare graft bending angles and femoral tunnel lengths in 155 patients who had undergone single-bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using the transtibial (n = 37), anteromedial portal (n = 72) and outside-in (n = 46) techniques.

The bending angles in the sagittal and axial planes were significantly greater but the coronal-bending angle was significantly less in the transtibial group than in the anteromedial portal and outside-in groups (p < 0.001 each). The mean length of the femoral tunnel in all three planes was significantly greater in the transtibial group than the anteromedial portal and outside-in groups (p < 0.001 each), but all mean tunnel lengths in the three groups exceeded 30 mm. The only significant difference was the coronal graft- bending angle in the anteromedial portal and outside-in groups (23.5° vs 29.8°, p = 0.012).

Compared with the transtibial technique, the anteromedial portal and outside-in techniques may reduce the graft-bending stress at the opening of the femoral tunnel. Despite the femoral tunnel length being shorter in the anteromedial portal and outside-in techniques than in the transtibial technique, a femoral tunnel length of more than 30 mm in the anteromedial portal and outside-in techniques may be sufficient for the graft to heal.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:743–51.

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C. E. H. Scott R. C. Murray D. J. MacDonald L. C. Biant

We explored the outcome of staged bilateral total knee replacement (TKR) for symmetrical degenerative joint disease and deformity in terms of patient expectations, functional outcome and satisfaction. From 2009 to 2011, 70 consecutive patients (41 female) with a mean age of 71.7 years (43 to 89) underwent 140 staged bilateral TKRs at our institution, with a mean time between operations of 7.8 months (2 to 25). Patients were assessed pre-operatively and at six and 12 months post-operatively using the Short Form-12, Oxford knee score (OKS), expectation questionnaire and satisfaction score. The pre-operative OKS was significantly worse before the first TKR (TKR1), but displayed significantly greater improvement than that observed after the second TKR (TKR2). Expectation level increased from TKR1 to TKR2 in 17% and decreased in 20%. Expectations of pain relief and stair-climbing were less before TKR2; in contrast, expectations of sporting and social activities were greater. Decreased expectations of TKR2 were significantly associated with younger age and high expectations before TKR1. Patient satisfaction was high for both TKR1 (93%) and TKR2 (87%) but did not correlate significantly within individuals. We concluded that satisfaction with one TKR does not necessarily translate to satisfaction following the second.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:752–8.

S. Tibrewal F. Malagelada L. Jeyaseelan F. Posch G. Scott

Peri-prosthetic infection is amongst the most common causes of failure following total knee replacement (TKR). In the presence of established infection, thorough joint debridement and removal of all components is necessary following which new components may be implanted. This can be performed in one or two stages; two-stage revision with placement of an interim antibiotic-loaded spacer is regarded by many to be the standard procedure for eradication of peri-prosthetic joint infection.

We present our experience of a consecutive series of 50 single-stage revision TKRs for established deep infection performed between 1979 and 2010. There were 33 women and 17 men with a mean age at revision of 66.8 years (42 to 84) and a mean follow-up of 10.5 years (2 to 24). The mean time between the primary TKR and the revision procedure was 2.05 years (1 to 8).

Only one patient required a further revision for recurrent infection, representing a success rate of 98%. Nine patients required further revision for aseptic loosening, according to microbiological testing of biopsies taken at the subsequent surgery. Three other patients developed a further septic episode but none required another revision.

These results suggest that a single-stage revision can produce comparable results to a two-stage revision. Single-stage revision offers a reduction in costs as well as less morbidity and inconvenience for patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:759–64.

B. J. W. Thomassen P. H. C. den Hollander H. H. Kaptijn R. G. H. H. Nelissen P. Pilot

We hypothesised there was no clinical value in using an autologous blood transfusion (ABT) drain in either primary total hip (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) in terms of limiting allogeneic blood transfusions when a modern restrictive blood management regime was followed. A total of 575 patients (65.2% men), with a mean age of 68.9 years (36 to 94) were randomised in this three-arm study to no drainage (group A), or to wound drainage with an ABT drain for either six hours (group B) or 24 hours (group C). The primary outcome was the number of patients receiving allogeneic blood transfusion. Secondary outcomes were post-operative haemoglobin (Hb) levels, length of hospital stay and adverse events.

This study identified only 41 transfused patients, with no significant difference in distribution between the three groups (p = 0.857). The mean pre-operative haemoglobin (Hb) value in the transfused group was 12.8 g/dL (9.8 to 15.5) versus 14.3 g/dL (10.6 to 18.0) in the non-transfused group (p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.86). Post-operatively, the median of re-transfused shed blood in patients with a THR was 280 mL (Interquartile range (IQR) 150 to 400) and in TKR patients 500 mL (IQR 350 to 650) (p <  0.001). ABT drains had no effect on the proportion of transfused patients in primary THR and TKR. The secondary outcomes were also comparable between groups.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:765–71.

Foot & Ankle
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B. Kessler M. Knupp P. Graber L. Zwicky B. Hintermann W. Zimmerli P. Sendi

The treatment of peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the ankle is not standardised. It is not clear whether an algorithm developed for hip and knee PJI can be used in the management of PJI of the ankle. We evaluated the outcome, at two or more years post-operatively, in 34 patients with PJI of the ankle, identified from a cohort of 511 patients who had undergone total ankle replacement. Their median age was 62.1 years (53.3 to 68.2), and 20 patients were women. Infection was exogenous in 28 (82.4%) and haematogenous in six (17.6%); 19 (55.9%) were acute infections and 15 (44.1%) chronic. Staphylococci were the cause of 24 infections (70.6%). Surgery with retention of one or both components was undertaken in 21 patients (61.8%), both components were replaced in ten (29.4%), and arthrodesis was undertaken in three (8.8%). An infection-free outcome with satisfactory function of the ankle was obtained in 23 patients (67.6%). The best rate of cure followed the exchange of both components (9/10, 90%). In the 21 patients in whom one or both components were retained, four had a relapse of the same infecting organism and three had an infection with another organism. Hence the rate of cure was 66.7% (14 of 21). In these 21 patients, we compared the treatment given to an algorithm developed for the treatment of PJI of the knee and hip. In 17 (80.9%) patients, treatment was not according to the algorithm. Most (11 of 17) had only one criterion against retention of one or both components. In all, ten of 11 patients with severe soft-tissue compromise as a single criterion had a relapse-free survival. We propose that the treatment concept for PJI of the ankle requires adaptation of the grading of quality of the soft tissues.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:772–7.

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A. Tinney A. Khot N. Eizenberg R. Wolfe H. K. Graham

Lengthening of the conjoined tendon of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis and soleus fascia is frequently used in the treatment of equinus deformities in children and adults. The Vulpius procedure as described in most orthopaedic texts is a division of the conjoined tendon in the shape of an inverted V. However, transverse division was also described by Vulpius and Stoffel, and has been reported in some clinical studies.

We studied the anatomy and biomechanics of transverse division of the conjoined tendon in 12 human cadavers (24 legs). Transverse division of the conjoined tendon resulted in predictable, controlled lengthening of the gastrocsoleus muscle-tendon unit. The lengthening achieved was dependent both on the level of the cut in the conjoined tendon and division of the midline raphé. Division at a proximal level resulted in a mean lengthening of 15.2 mm (sd 2.0, (12 to 19), which increased to 17.1 mm (sd 1.8, (14 to 20) after division of the midline raphé. Division at a distal level resulted in a mean lengthening of 21.0 mm (sd 2.0, (18 to 25), which increased to 26.4 mm (sd 1.4, (24 to 29) after division of the raphé. These differences were significant (p < 0.001).

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:778–82.

N. Kanakaris S. Gudipati T. Tosounidis P. Harwood S. Britten P. V. Giannoudis

Intramedullary infection in long bones represents a complex clinical challenge, with an increasing incidence due to the increasing use of intramedullary fixation. We report a prospective case series using an intramedullary reaming device, the Reamer–Irrigator–Aspirator (RIA) system, in association with antibiotic cement rods for the treatment of lower limb long bone infections. A total of 24 such patients, 16 men and eight women, with a mean age of 44.5 years (17 to 75), 14 with femoral and 10 with tibial infection, were treated in a staged manner over a period of 2.5 years in a single referral centre. Of these, 21 patients had had previous surgery, usually for fixation of a fracture (seven had sustained an open fracture originally and one had undergone fasciotomies). According to the Cierny–Mader classification system, 18 patients were classified as type 1A, four as 3A (discharging sinus tract), one as type 4A and one as type 1B. Staphylococcus species were isolated in 20 patients (83.3%). Local antibiotic delivery was used in the form of impregnated cement rods in 23 patients. These were removed at a mean of 2.6 months (1 to 5). Pathogen-specific antibiotics were administered systemically for a mean of six weeks (3 to 18). At a mean follow-up of 21 months (8 to 36), 23 patients (96%) had no evidence of recurrent infection. One underwent a planned trans-tibial amputation two weeks post-operatively due to peripheral vascular disease and chronic recalcitrant osteomyelitis of the tibia and foot. The combination of RIA reaming, the administration of systemic pathogen-specific antibiotics and local delivery using impregnated cement rods proved to be a safe and efficient form of treatment in these patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:783–8.

K. Sukegawa K. Kuniyoshi T. Suzuki Y. Ogawa S. Okamoto M. Shibayama T. Kobayashi K. Takahashi

We conducted an anatomical study to determine the best technique for transfer of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) for the treatment of proximal ulnar nerve injuries. The AIN, ulnar nerve, and associated branches were dissected in 24 cadaver arms. The number of branches of the AIN and length available for transfer were measured. The nerve was divided just proximal to its termination in pronator quadratus and transferred to the ulnar nerve through the shortest available route. Separation of the deep and superficial branches of the ulnar nerve by blunt dissection alone, was also assessed. The mean number of AIN branches was 4.8 (3 to 8) and the mean length of the nerve available for transfer was 72 mm (41 to 106). The transferred nerve reached the ulnar nerve most distally when placed dorsal to flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). We therefore conclude that the AIN should be passed dorsal to FDP, and that the deep and superficial branches of the ulnar nerve require approximately 30 mm of blunt dissection and 20 mm of sharp dissection from the point of bifurcation to the site of the anastomosis.

The use of this technique for transfer of the AIN should improve the outcome for patients with proximal ulnar nerve injuries.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:789–94.

K. Gamo K. Kuriyama H. Higuchi A. Uesugi T. Nakase M. Hamada H. Kawai

We examined the outcomes and levels of patient satisfaction in 202 consecutive cases of ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SBPB) in upper limb surgery performed between September 2007 and March 2010.

All blocks were performed by orthopaedic surgeons using ultrasound visualisation with a high-frequency linear probe. The probe was placed in the coronal–oblique plane in the supraclavicular fossa, and the puncture was ‘in-plane’ from lateral to medial. Most of the blocks were performed with 0.75% ropivacaine/1% lidocaine (1:1), with or without adrenaline in 1:200 000 dilution. In 201 patients (99.5%) the brachial plexus block permitted surgery without conversion to general anaesthesia. The mean procedure time for block was 3.9 min (2 to 12), the mean waiting time for surgery was 34.1 min (10 to 64), the mean surgical time was 75.2 min (6 to 232), and the mean duration of post-anaesthetic analgesia was 437 min (171 to 992). A total of 20 patients (10%) developed a transient Horner’s syndrome. No nerve injury, pneumothorax, arterial puncture or systemic anaesthetic toxicity were recorded. Most patients (96.7%) were satisfied with ultrasound-guided SBPB. This study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided SBPB for orthopaedic surgery on the upper limb.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:795–9.

C. Karampalis A. I. Tsirikos

We describe 13 patients with cerebral palsy and lordoscoliosis/hyperlordosis of the lumbar spine who underwent a posterior spinal fusion at a mean age of 14.5 years (10.8 to 17.4) to improve sitting posture and relieve pain. The mean follow-up was 3.3 years (2.2 to 6.2).

The mean pre-operative lumbar lordosis was 108° (80 to 150°) and was corrected to 62° (43° to 85°); the mean thoracic kyphosis from 17° (-23° to 35°) to 47° (25° to 65°); the mean scoliosis from 82° (0° to 125°) to 22° (0° to 40°); the mean pelvic obliquity from 21° (0° to 38°) to 3° (0° to 15°); the mean sacral slope from 79° (54° to 90°) to 50° (31° to 66°). The mean pre-operative coronal imbalance was 5 cm (0 cm to 8.9 cm) and was corrected to 0.6 cm (0 to 3.2). The mean sagittal imbalance of -8 cm (-16 cm to 7.8 cm) was corrected to -1.6 cm (-4 cm to 2.5 cm). The mean operating time was 250 minutes (180 to 360 minutes) and intra-operative blood loss 0.8 of estimated blood volume (0.3 to 2 estimated blood volume). The mean intensive care and hospital stay were 3.5 days (2 to 8) and 14.5 days (10 to 27), respectively. Three patients lost a significant amount of blood intra-operatively and subsequently developed chest or urinary infections and superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

An increased pre-operative lumbar lordosis and sacral slope were associated with increased peri-operative morbidity: scoliosis and pelvic obliquity were not. A reduced lumbar lordosis and increased thoracic kyphosis correlated with better global sagittal balance at follow-up. All patients and their parents reported excellent surgical outcomes.

Lordoscoliosis and hyperlordosis are associated with significant morbidity in quadriplegic patients. They are rare deformities and their treatment is challenging. Sagittal imbalance is the major component: it can be corrected by posterior fusion of the spine with excellent functional results.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:800–6.

S. S. Rajaee L. E. A. Kanim H. W. Bae

Using the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified national trends in revision spinal fusion along with a comprehensive comparison of comorbidities, inpatient complications and surgical factors of revision spinal fusion compared to primary spinal fusion.

In 2009, there were 410 158 primary spinal fusion discharges and 22 128 revision spinal fusion discharges. Between 2002 and 2009, primary fusion increased at a higher rate compared with revision fusion (56.4% vs 51.0%; p < 0.001). In 2009, the mean length of stay and hospital charges were higher for revision fusion discharges than for primary fusion discharges (4.2 days vs 3.8 days, p < 0.001; USD $91 909 vs. $87 161, p < 0.001). In 2009, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was used more in revision fusion than in primary fusion (39.6% vs 27.6%, p < 0.001), whereas interbody devices were used less in revision fusion (41.8% vs 56.6%, p < 0.001).

In the multivariable logistic regression model for all spinal fusions, depression (odds ratio (OR) 1.53, p < 0.001), psychotic disorders (OR 1.49, p < 0.001), deficiency anaemias (OR 1.35, p < 0.001) and smoking (OR 1.10, p = 0.006) had a greater chance of occurrence in revision spinal fusion discharges than in primary fusion discharges, adjusting for other variables. In terms of complications, after adjusting for all significant comorbidities, this study found that dural tears (OR 1.41; p < 0.001) and surgical site infections (OR 3.40; p < 0.001) had a greater chance of occurrence in revision spinal fusion discharges than in primary fusion discharges (p < 0.001). A p-value < 0.01 was considered significant in all final analyses.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:807–16.

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S. S. Al-Nammari S. Dawson-Bowling A. Amin D. Nielsen

Conventional methods of treating ankle fractures in the elderly are associated with high rates of complication. We describe the results of treating these injuries in 48 frail elderly patients with a long calcaneotalotibial nail.

The mean age of the group was 82 years (61 to 96) and 41 (85%) were women. All were frail, with multiple medical comorbidities and their mean American Society of Anaesthesiologists score was 3 (3 to 4). None could walk independently before their operation. All the fractures were displaced and unstable; the majority (94%, 45 of 48) were low-energy injuries and 40% (19 of 48) were open.

The overall mortality at six months was 35%. Of the surviving patients, 90% returned to their pre-injury level of function. The mean pre- and post-operative Olerud and Molander questionnaire scores were 62 and 57 respectively. Complications included superficial infection (4%, two of 48); deep infection (2%, one of 48); a broken or loose distal locking screw (6%, three of 48); valgus malunion (4%, two of 48); and one below-knee amputation following an unsuccessful vascular operation. There were no cases of nonunion, nail breakage or peri-prosthetic fracture.

A calcaneotalotibial nail is an excellent device for treating an unstable fracture of the ankle in the frail elderly patient. It allows the patient to mobilise immediately and minimises the risk of bone or wound problems. A long nail which crosses the isthmus of the tibia avoids the risk of peri-prosthetic fracture associated with shorter devices.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:817–22.

L. M. Goedhart J. J. W. Ploegmakers H. M. Kroon E. C. H. Zwartkruis P. C. Jutte

In this case study, we describe the clinical presentation and treatment of 36 patients with periosteal chondrosarcoma collected over a 59-year period by the archive of the Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumours. The demographics, clinical presentation, radiological features, treatment and follow-up are presented with the size, location, the histological grading of the tumour and the survival.

We found a slight predominance of men (61%), and a predilection for the distal femur (33%) and proximal humerus (33%). The metaphysis was the most common site (47%) and the most common presentation was with pain (44%). Half the tumours were classified histologically as grade 1. Pulmonary metastases were reported in one patient after an intra-lesional resection. A second patient died from local recurrence and possible pulmonary and skin metastases after an incomplete resection.

It is clearly important to make the diagnosis appropriately because an incomplete resection may result in local recurrence and metastatic spread. Staging for metastatic disease is recommended in grade II or III lesions.

These patients should be managed with a contrast-enhanced MRI of the tumour and histological confirmation by biopsy, followed by en-bloc excision.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:823–8.

J. Y. Ferguson M. Dudareva N. D. Riley D. Stubbs B. L. Atkins M. A. McNally

We report our experience using a biodegradable calcium sulphate antibiotic carrier containing tobramycin in the surgical management of patients with chronic osteomyelitis. The patients were reviewed to determine the rate of recurrent infection, the filling of bony defects, and any problems with wound healing. A total of 193 patients (195 cases) with a mean age of 46.1 years (16.1 to 82.0) underwent surgery. According to the Cierny–Mader classification of osteomyelitis there were 12 type I, 1 type II, 144 type III and 38 type IV cases. The mean follow-up was 3.7 years (1.3 to 7.1) with recurrent infection occurring in 18 cases (9.2%) at a mean of 10.3 months post-operatively (1 to 25.0). After further treatment the infection resolved in 191 cases (97.9%). Prolonged wound ooze (longer than two weeks post-operatively) occurred in 30 cases (15.4%) in which there were no recurrent infection. Radiographic assessment at final follow-up showed no filling of the defect with bone in 67 (36.6%), partial filling in 108 (59.0%) and complete filling in eight (4.4%). A fracture occurred in nine (4.6%) of the treated osteomyelitic segments at a mean of 1.9 years (0.4 to 4.9) after operation.

We conclude that Osteoset T is helpful in the management of patients with chronic osteomyelitis, but the filling of the defect in bone is variable. Prolonged wound ooze is usually self-limiting and not associated with recurrent infection.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:829–36

Children's Orthopaedics
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M. Ramanoudjame P. Loriaut R. Seringe C. Glorion P. Wicart

In this study we evaluated the results of midtarsal release and open reduction for the treatment of children with convex congenital foot (CCF) (vertical talus) and compared them with the published results of peritalar release. Between 1977 and 2009, a total of 22 children (31 feet) underwent this procedure. In 15 children (48%) the CCF was isolated and in the remainder it was not (seven with arthrogryposis, two with spinal dysraphism, one with a polymalformative syndrome and six with an undefined neurological disorder).

Pre-operatively, the mean tibiotalar angle was 150.2° (106° to 175°) and the mean calcaneal pitch angle was -19.3° (-72° to 4°). The procedure included talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joint capsulotomies, lengthening of tendons of tibialis anterior and the extensors of the toes, allowing reduction of the midtarsal joints. Lengthening of the Achilles tendon was necessary in 23 feet (74%).

The mean follow-up was 11 years (2 to 21). The results, as assessed by the Adelaar score, were good in 24 feet (77.4%), fair in six (19.3%) and poor in one foot (3.3%), with no difference between those with isolated CCF and those without. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society midfoot score was 89.9 (54 to 100) and 77.8 (36 to 93) for those with isolated CCF and those without, respectively. At the final follow-up, the mean tibiotalar (120°; 90 to 152) and calcaneal pitch angles (4°; -13 to 22) had improved significantly (p < 0.0001). Dislocation of the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints was completely reduced in 22 (70.9%) and 29 (93.6%) of feet, respectively. Three children (five feet) underwent further surgery at a mean of 8.5 years post-operatively, three with pes planovalgus and two in whom the deformity had been undercorrected. No child developed avascular necrosis of the talus.

Midtarsal joint release and open reduction is a satisfactory procedure, which may provide better results than peritalar release. Complications include the development of pes planovalgus and persistent dorsal subluxation of the talonavicular joint.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:837–44.

C. L. Romanò N. Logoluso E. Meani D. Romanò E. De Vecchi C. Vassena L. Drago

The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis often includes surgical debridement and filling the resultant void with antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate cement, bone grafts or bone substitutes. Recently, the use of bioactive glass to treat bone defects in infections has been reported in a limited series of patients. However, no direct comparison between this biomaterial and antibiotic-loaded bone substitute has been performed.

In this retrospective study, we compared the safety and efficacy of surgical debridement and local application of the bioactive glass S53P4 in a series of 27 patients affected by chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones (Group A) with two other series, treated respectively with an antibiotic-loaded hydroxyapatite and calcium sulphate compound (Group B; n = 27) or a mixture of tricalcium phosphate and an antibiotic-loaded demineralised bone matrix (Group C; n = 22). Systemic antibiotics were also used in all groups.

After comparable periods of follow-up, the control of infection was similar in the three groups. In particular, 25 out of 27 (92.6%) patients of Group A, 24 out of 27 (88.9%) in Group B and 19 out of 22 (86.3%) in Group C showed no infection recurrence at means of 21.8 (12 to 36), 22.1 (12 to 36) and 21.5 (12 to 36) months follow-up, respectively, while Group A showed a reduced wound complication rate.

Our results show that patients treated with a bioactive glass without local antibiotics achieved similar eradication of infection and less drainage than those treated with two different antibiotic-loaded calcium-based bone substitutes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:845–50.

Exam Corner – June 2014 Pages 851 - 852
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V. Khanduja

The FRCS (Tr & Orth) examination has three components: MCQs, Vivas and Clinical Examination. The Vivas are further divided into four sections comprising Basic Science, Adult Pathology, Hands and Children’s Orthopaedics and Trauma. The Clinical Examination section is divided into Upper and Lower limb cases. The aim of this section in the Journal is to focus specifically on the trainees preparing for the exam and to cater to all the sections of the exam. The vision is to complete the cycle of all relevant exam topics (as per the syllabus) in four years.