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Volume 100-B, Issue 3 March 2018

Editorial
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F. E. Rowan F. S. Haddad
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A. T. Hexter T. Thangarajah G. Blunn F. S. Haddad
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Aims

The success of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) depends on osseointegration at the graft-tunnel interface and intra-articular ligamentization. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of clinical and preclinical studies that evaluated biological augmentation of graft healing in ACLR.

Materials and Methods

In all, 1879 studies were identified across three databases. Following assessment against strict criteria, 112 studies were included (20 clinical studies; 92 animal studies).


A. Nakamae N. Adachi M. Deie M. Ishikawa T. Nakasa Y. Ikuta M. Ochi
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Aims

To investigate the risk factors for progression of articular cartilage damage after anatomical anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

Patients and Methods

A total of 174 patients who underwent second-look arthroscopic evaluation after anatomical ACL reconstruction were enrolled in this study. The graded condition of the articular cartilage at the time of ACL reconstruction was compared with that at second-look arthroscopy. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), ACL reconstruction technique, meniscal conditions, and other variables were assessed by regression analysis as risk factors for progression of damage to the articular cartilage.


A. P. Sprowson† C. Jensen I. Ahmed N. Parsons P. Partington K. Emmerson I. Carluke S. Asaad R. Pratt S. Muller M. R. Reed
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A. P. Sprowson† C. Jensen I. Ahmed N. Parsons P. Partington K. Emmerson I. Carluke S. Asaad R. Pratt S. Muller M. R. Reed
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A. P. Sprowson† C. Jensen N. Parsons P. Partington K. Emmerson I. Carluke S. Asaad R. Pratt S. Muller I. Ahmed M. R. Reed
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Aims

Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of surgery with an incidence of about 1% in the United Kingdom. Sutures can lead to the development of a SSI, as micro-organisms can colonize the suture as it is implanted. Triclosan-coated sutures, being antimicrobical, were developed to reduce the rate of SSI. Our aim was to assess whether triclosan-coated sutures cause a reduction in SSIs following arthroplasty of the hip and knee.

Patients and Methods

This two-arm, parallel, double-blinded study involved 2546 patients undergoing elective total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at three hospitals. A total of 1323 were quasi-randomized to a standard suture group, and 1223 being quasi-randomized to the triclosan-coated suture group. The primary endpoint was the rate of SSI at 30 days postoperatively.


Y. H. Park J. W. Lee J. Y. Hong G. W. Choi H. J. Kim
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Aims

Identifying predictors of compartment syndrome in the foot after a fracture of the calcaneus may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment. The aim of our study was to identify any such predictors.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed 303 patients (313 fractures) with a fracture of the calcaneus who presented to us between October 2008 and September 2016. The presence of compartment syndrome and potential predictors were identified by reviewing their medical records. Potential predictors included age, gender, concomitant foot injury, mechanism of injury, fracture classification, time from injury to admission, underlying illness, use of anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents, smoking status and occupation. Associations with predictors were analyzed using logistic regression analysis.


A. Kolk J. F. Henseler F. J. Overes J. Nagels R. G. H. H. Nelissen
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Aims

Since long-term outcome of teres major tendon transfer surgery for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff (RC) tears is largely unknown, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of the teres major transfer. We also aimed to report on the results of a cohort of patients with a similar indication for surgery that underwent a latissimus dorsi tendon transfer.

Patients and Methods

In this prospective cohort study, we reported on the long-term results of 20 consecutive patients with a teres major tendon transfer for irreparable massive posterosuperior RC tears. Additionally, we reported on the results of the latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (n = 19). The mean age was 60 years (47 to 77). Outcomes included the Constant score (CS), and pain at rest and during movement using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).


P. Raiss G. Alami T. Bruckner P. Magosch P. Habermeyer P. Boileau G. Walch
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Aims

The aim of this study was to analyze the results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) in patients with type 1 sequelae of a fracture of the proximal humerus in association with rotator cuff deficiency or severe stiffness of the shoulder.

Patients and Methods

A total of 38 patients were included: 28 women and ten men. Their mean age at the time of arthroplasty was 73 years (54 to 91). Before the RSA, 18 patients had been treated with open reduction and internal fixation following a fracture. A total of 22 patients had a rotator cuff tear and 11 had severe stiffness of the shoulder with < 0° of external rotation. The mean follow-up was 4.3 years (1.5 to 10). The Constant score and the range of movement of the shoulder were recorded preoperatively and at final follow-up.

Preoperatively, radiographs in two planes were performed, as well as CT or arthro-CT scans; radiographs were also performed at final follow-up.


S. A. Mahure B. Mollon B. M. Capogna J. D. Zuckerman Y. W. Kwon A. S. Rokito
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Aims

The factors that predispose to recurrent instability and revision stabilization procedures after arthroscopic Bankart repair for anterior glenohumeral instability remain unclear. We sought to determine the rate and risk factors associated with ongoing instability in patients undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repair for instability of the shoulder.

Materials and Methods

We used the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database to identify patients with a diagnosis of anterior instability of the shoulder undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repair between 2003 and 2011. Patients were followed for a minimum of three years. Baseline demographics and subsequent further surgery to the ipsilateral shoulder were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for recurrent instability.


H. Inui K. Nobuhara
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Aims

We report the clinical results of glenoid osteotomy in patients with atraumatic posteroinferior instability associated with glenoid dysplasia.

Patients and Methods

The study reports results in 211 patients (249 shoulders) with atraumatic posteroinferior instability. The patients comprised 63 men and 148 women with a mean age of 20 years. The posteroinferior glenoid surface was elevated by osteotomy at the scapular neck. A body spica was applied to maintain the arm perpendicular to the glenoid for two weeks postoperatively. Clinical results were evaluated using the Rowe score and Japan Shoulder Society Shoulder Instability Score (JSS-SIS); bone union, osteoarthrosis, and articular congruity were examined on plain radiographs.


C. E. L. Watkins D. W. Elson J. W. K. Harrison J. Pooley
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Aim

The aim of this study was to report the long-term outcome and implant survival of the lateral resurfacing elbow (LRE) arthroplasty in the treatment of elbow arthritis.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed a consecutive series of 27 patients (30 elbows) who underwent LRE arthroplasty between December 2005 and January 2008. There were 15 women and 12 men, with a mean age of 61 years (25 to 82). The diagnosis was primary hypotrophic osteoarthritis (OA) in 12 patients (14 elbows), post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) in five (five elbows) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in ten patients (11 elbows). The mean clinical outcome scores including the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow score (ASES-e), the mean range of movement and the radiological outcome were recorded at three, six and 12 months and at a mean final follow-up of 8.3 years (7.3 to 9.4). A one sample t-test comparing pre and postoperative values, and survival analysis using the Kaplan–Meier method were undertaken.


R. Goodall H. Claireaux J. Hill E. Wilson F. Monsell BOAST 11 Collaborative P. Tarassoli
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Aims

Supracondylar fractures are the most frequently occurring paediatric fractures about the elbow and may be associated with a neurovascular injury. The British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma 11 (BOAST 11) guidelines describe best practice for supracondylar fracture management. This study aimed to assess whether emergency departments in the United Kingdom adhere to BOAST 11 standard 1: a documented assessment, performed on presentation, must include the status of the radial pulse, digital capillary refill time, and the individual function of the radial, median (including the anterior interosseous), and ulnar nerves.

Materials and Methods

Stage 1: We conducted a multicentre, retrospective audit of adherence to BOAST 11 standard 1. Data were collected from eight hospitals in the United Kingdom. A total of 433 children with Gartland type 2 or 3 supracondylar fractures were eligible for inclusion. A centrally created data collection sheet was used to guide objective analysis of whether BOAST 11 standard 1 was adhered to. Stage 2: We created a quality improvement proforma for use in emergency departments. This was piloted in one of the hospitals used in the primary audit and was re-audited using equivalent methodology. In all, 102 patients presenting between January 2016 and July 2017 were eligible for inclusion in the re-audit.


A. L. Sims N. Parsons J. Achten X. L. Griffin M. L. Costa M. R. Reed CORNET Trainee Collaborative
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Aims

This study aimed to compare the change in health-related quality of life of patients receiving a traditional cemented monoblock Thompson hemiarthroplasty compared with a modern cemented modular polished-taper stemmed hemiarthroplasty for displaced intracapsular hip fractures.

Patients and Methods

This was a pragmatic, multicentre, multisurgeon, two-arm, parallel group, randomized standard-of-care controlled trial. It was embedded within the WHiTE Comprehensive Cohort Study. The sample size was 964 patients. The setting was five National Health Service Trauma Hospitals in England. A total of 964 patients over 60 years of age who required hemiarthroplasty of the hip between February 2015 and March 2016 were included. A standardized measure of health outcome, the EuroQol (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire, was carried out on admission and at four months following the operation.


S. Sprague M. Bhandari M. J. Heetveld S. Liew T. Scott S. Bzovsky D. Heels-Ansdell Q. Zhou M. Swiontkowski E. H. Schemitsch
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Aims

The primary aim of this prognostic study was to identify baseline factors associated with physical health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients after a femoral neck fracture. The secondary aims were to identify baseline factors associated with mental HRQL, hip function, and health utility.

Patients and Methods

Patients who were enrolled in the Fixation using Alternative Implants for the Treatment of Hip Fractures (FAITH) trial completed the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, and EuroQol 5-Dimension at regular intervals for 24 months. We conducted multilevel mixed models to identify factors potentially associated with HRQL.


M. M. Gilg C. L. Gaston L. Jeys A. Abudu R. M. Tillman J. D. Stevenson R. J. Grimer M. C. Parry
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Aims

The use of a noninvasive growing endoprosthesis in the management of primary bone tumours in children is well established. However, the efficacy of such a prosthesis in those requiring a revision procedure has yet to be established. The aim of this series was to present our results using extendable prostheses for the revision of previous endoprostheses.

Patients and Methods

All patients who had a noninvasive growing endoprosthesis inserted at the time of a revision procedure were identified from our database. A total of 21 patients (seven female patients, 14 male) with a mean age of 20.4 years (10 to 41) at the time of revision were included. The indications for revision were mechanical failure, trauma or infection with a residual leg-length discrepancy. The mean follow-up was 70 months (17 to 128). The mean shortening prior to revision was 44 mm (10 to 100). Lengthening was performed in all but one patient with a mean lengthening of 51 mm (5 to 140).


D. A. Campanacci F. Totti S. Puccini G. Beltrami G. Scoccianti L. Delcroix M. Innocenti R. Capanna
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Aims

After intercalary resection of a bone tumour from the femur, reconstruction with a vascularized fibular graft (VFG) and massive allograft is considered a reliable method of treatment. However, little is known about the long-term outcome of this procedure. The aims of this study were to determine whether the morbidity of this procedure was comparable to that of other reconstructive techniques, if it was possible to achieve a satisfactory functional result, and whether biological reconstruction with a VFG and massive allograft could achieve a durable, long-lasting reconstruction.

Patients and Methods

A total of 23 patients with a mean age of 16 years (five to 40) who had undergone resection of an intercalary bone tumour of the femur and reconstruction with a VFG and allograft were reviewed clinically and radiologically. The mean follow-up was 141 months (24 to 313). The mean length of the fibular graft was 18 cm (12 to 29). Full weight-bearing without a brace was allowed after a mean of 13 months (seven to 26).


Children's Orthopaedics
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R. Ganeshalingam A. Donnan O. Evans M. Hoq M. Camp L. Donnan
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Aims

Displaced fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus are frequently managed surgically with the aim of avoiding nonunion, malunion, disturbances of growth and later arthritis. The ideal method of fixation is however not known, and treatment varies between surgeons and hospitals. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of two well-established forms of surgical treatment, Kirschner wire (K-wire) and screw fixation.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective cohort study of children who underwent surgical treatment for a fracture of the lateral condyle of the humerus between January 2005 and December 2014 at two centres was undertaken. Pre, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics were evaluated.

A total of 336 children were included in the study. Their mean age at the time of injury was 5.8 years (0 to 15) with a male:female patient ratio of 3:2. A total of 243 (72%) had a Milch II fracture and the fracture was displaced by > 2 mm in 228 (68%). In all, 235 patients underwent K-wire fixation and 101 had screw fixation.


J. Messner L. Johnson D. M. Taylor P. Harwood S. Britten P. Foster
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Aims

The aim of this study was to report the clinical, functional and radiological outcomes of children and adolescents with tibial fractures treated using the Ilizarov method.

Patients and Methods

Between 2013 and 2016 a total of 74 children with 75 tibial fractures underwent treatment at our major trauma centre using an Ilizarov frame. Demographic and clinical information from a prospective database was supplemented by routine functional and psychological assessment and a retrospective review of the notes and radiographs.


J. D. Parker K. S. Lim D. C. Kieser T. B. F. Woodfield G. J. Hooper
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Aims

The intra-articular administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to be effective in reducing blood loss in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and anterior cruciate reconstruction. The effects on human articular cartilage, however, remains unknown. Our aim, in this study, was to investigate any detrimental effect of TXA on chondrocytes, and to establish if there was a safe dose for its use in clinical practice. The hypothesis was that TXA would cause a dose-dependent damage to human articular cartilage.

Materials and Methods

The cellular morphology, adhesion, metabolic activity, and viability of human chondrocytes when increasing the concentration (0 mg/ml to 40 mg/ml) and length of exposure to TXA (0 to 12 hours) were analyzed in a 2D model. This was then repeated, excluding cellular adhesion, in a 3D model and confirmed in viable samples of articular cartilage.