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Foot & Ankle

Outcomes in Ankle Replacement Study (OARS)

radiological and patient-reported outcomes in the first 12 months after ankle arthroplasty

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The aim of this study was to capture 12-month outcomes from a representative multicentre cohort of patients undergoing total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), describe the pattern of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) at 12 months, and identify predictors of these outcome measures.


Patients listed for a primary TAA at 19 NHS hospitals between February 2016 and October 2017 were eligible. PROMs data were collected preoperatively and at six and 12 months including: Manchester-Oxford Foot and Ankle Questionnaire (MOXFQ (foot and ankle)) and the EuroQol five-dimension five-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L). Radiological pre- and postoperative data included Kellgren-Lawrence score and implant position measurement. This was supplemented by data from the National Joint Registry through record linkage to determine: American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade at index procedure; indication for surgery, index ankle previous fracture; tibial hind foot alignment; additional surgery at the time of TAA; and implant type. Multivariate regression models assessed outcomes, and the relationship between MOXFQ and EQ-5D-5L outcomes, with patient characteristics.


Data from 238 patients were analyzed. There were significant improvements in MOXFQ and EQ-5D-5L among people who underwent TAA at six- and 12-month assessments compared with preoperative scores (p < 0.001). Most improvement occurred between preoperative and six months, with little further improvement at 12 months. A greater improvement in MOXFQ outcome postoperatively was associated with older age and more advanced radiological signs of ankle osteoarthritis at baseline.


TAA significantly benefits patients with end-stage ankle disease. The lack of substantial further overall change between six and 12 months suggests that capturing PROMs at six months is sufficient to assess the success of the procedure. Older patients and those with advanced radiological disease had the greater gains. These outcome predictors can be used to counsel younger patients and those with earlier ankle disease on the expectations of TAA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(8):895–904.

Correspondence should be sent to Prof Alexander James MacGregor. E-mail:

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