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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 86 - 92
1 Jan 2024
Scholte CHJ Dorleijn DMJ Krijvenaar DT van de Sande MAJ van Langevelde K


Due to its indolent clinical behaviour, the treatment paradigm of atypical cartilaginous tumours (ACTs) in the long bones is slowly shifting from intralesional resection (curettage) and local adjuvants, towards active surveillance through wait-and-scan follow-up. In this retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary referral centre, we studied the natural behaviour of ACT lesions by active surveillance with MRI. Clinical symptoms were not considered in the surveillance programme.


The aim of this study was to see whether active surveillance is safe regarding malignant degeneration and local progression. In total, 117 patients were evaluated with MRI assessing growth, cortical destruction, endosteal scalloping, periosteal reaction, relation to the cortex, and perilesional bone marrow oedema. Patients received up to six follow-up scans.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1011 - 1016
1 Sep 2022
Acem I van de Sande MAJ

Prediction tools are instruments which are commonly used to estimate the prognosis in oncology and facilitate clinical decision-making in a more personalized manner. Their popularity is shown by the increasing numbers of prediction tools, which have been described in the medical literature. Many of these tools have been shown to be useful in the field of soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremities (eSTS). In this annotation, we aim to provide an overview of the available prediction tools for eSTS, provide an approach for clinicians to evaluate the performance and usefulness of the available tools for their own patients, and discuss their possible applications in the management of patients with an eSTS.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(9):1011–1016.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 7 | Pages 515 - 528
1 Jul 2022
van der Heijden L Bindt S Scorianz M Ng C Gibbons MCLH van de Sande MAJ Campanacci DA


Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) treatment changed since the introduction of denosumab from purely surgical towards a multidisciplinary approach, with recent concerns of higher recurrence rates after denosumab. We evaluated oncological, surgical, and functional outcomes for distal radius GCTB, with a critically appraised systematic literature review.


We included 76 patients with distal radius GCTB in three sarcoma centres (1990 to 2019). Median follow-up was 8.8 years (2 to 23). Seven patients underwent curettage, 38 curettage with adjuvants, and 31 resection; 20 had denosumab.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 4 | Pages 788 - 794
1 Apr 2021
Spierenburg G Lancaster ST van der Heijden L Mastboom MJL Gelderblom H Pratap S van de Sande MAJ Gibbons CLMH


Tenosynovial giant cell tumour (TGCT) is one of the most common soft-tissue tumours of the foot and ankle and can behave in a locally aggressive manner. Tumour control can be difficult, despite the various methods of treatment available. Since treatment guidelines are lacking, the aim of this study was to review the multidisciplinary management by presenting the largest series of TGCT of the foot and ankle to date from two specialized sarcoma centres.


The Oxford Tumour Registry and the Leiden University Medical Centre Sarcoma Registry were retrospectively reviewed for patients with histologically proven foot and ankle TGCT diagnosed between January 2002 and August 2019.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1752 - 1759
1 Dec 2020
Tsuda Y Tsoi K Stevenson JD Laitinen M Ferguson PC Wunder JS Griffin AM van de Sande MAJ van Praag V Leithner A Fujiwara T Yasunaga H Matsui H Parry MC Jeys LM


Our aim was to develop and validate nomograms that would predict the cumulative incidence of sarcoma-specific death (CISSD) and disease progression (CIDP) in patients with localized high-grade primary central and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma.


The study population consisted of 391 patients from two international sarcoma centres (development cohort) who had undergone definitive surgery for a localized high-grade (histological grade II or III) conventional primary central chondrosarcoma or dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Disease progression captured the first event of either metastasis or local recurrence. An independent cohort of 221 patients from three additional hospitals was used for external validation. Two nomograms were internally and externally validated for discrimination (c-index) and calibration plot.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 3 | Pages 272 - 280
1 Mar 2019
Verspoor FGM Mastboom MJL Hannink G van der Graaf WTA van de Sande MAJ Schreuder HWB


The aim of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and joint function in tenosynovial giant cell tumour (TGCT) patients before and after surgical treatment.

Patients and Methods

This prospective cohort study run in two Dutch referral centres assessed patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs; 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC)) in 359 consecutive patients with localized- and diffuse-type TGCT of large joints. Patients with recurrent disease (n = 121) and a wait-and-see policy (n = 32) were excluded. Collected data were analyzed at specified time intervals preoperatively (baseline) and/or postoperatively up to five years.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1392 - 1398
1 Oct 2018
Willeumier JJ van de Sande MAJ van der Wal RJP Dijkstra PDS


The aim of this study was to assess the current trends in the estimation of survival and the preferred forms of treatment of pathological fractures among national and international general and oncological orthopaedic surgeons, and to explore whether improvements in the management of these patients could be identified in this way.

Materials and Methods

All members of the Dutch Orthopaedic Society (DOS) and the European Musculoskeletal Oncology Society (EMSOS) were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire containing 12 cases.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 4 | Pages 522 - 530
1 Apr 2017
Bus MPA van de Sande MAJ Taminiau AHM Dijkstra PDS


To assess complications and failure mechanisms of osteoarticular allograft reconstructions for primary bone tumours.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively evaluated 38 patients (28 men, 74%) who were treated at our institution with osteoarticular allograft reconstruction between 1989 and 2010. Median age was 19 years (interquartile range 14 to 32). Median follow-up was 19.5 years (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.0 to 26.1) when 26 patients (68%) were alive. In addition, we systematically searched the literature for clinical studies on osteoarticular allografts, finding 31 studies suitable for analysis. Results of papers that reported on one site exclusively were pooled for comparison.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1674 - 1681
1 Dec 2016
Verdegaal SHM van Rijswijk CS Brouwers HFC Dijkstra PDS van de Sande MAJ Hogendoorn PCW Taminiau AHM


The purpose of this retrospective study was to differentiate between the MRI features of normal post-operative change and those of residual or recurrent disease after intralesional treatment of an atypical cartilage tumour (ACT)/grade I chondrosarcoma.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed the case notes, radiology and histology of 75 patients, who had been treated for an ACT/grade I chondrosarcoma by curettage, phenolisation and bone allografting between 1994 and 2005. The first post-operative Gd-enhanced MRI scan was carried out within one year of surgery. Patients had a minimum of two scans and a mean follow-up of 72 months (13 to 169). Further surgery was undertaken in cases of suspected recurrence.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 6 | Pages 853 - 861
1 Jun 2015
Hilven PH Bayliss L Cosker T Dijkstra PDS Jutte PC Lahoda LU Schaap GR Bramer JAM van Drunen GK Strackee SD van Vooren J Gibbons M Giele H van de Sande MAJ

Vascularised fibular grafts (VFGs ) are a valuable surgical technique in limb salvage after resection of a tumour. The primary objective of this multicentre study was to assess the risk factors for failure and complications for using a VFG after resection of a tumour.

The study involved 74 consecutive patients (45 men and 29 women with mean age of 23 years (1 to 64) from four tertiary centres for orthopaedic oncology who underwent reconstruction using a VFG after resection of a tumour between 1996 and 2011. There were 52 primary and 22 secondary reconstructions. The mean follow-up was 77 months (10 to 195).

In all, 69 patients (93%) had successful limb salvage; all of these united and 65 (88%) showed hypertrophy of the graft. The mean time to union differed between those involving the upper (28 weeks; 12 to 96) and lower limbs (44 weeks; 12 to 250). Fracture occurred in 11 (15%), and nonunion in 14 (19%) patients.

In 35 patients (47%) at least one complication arose, with a greater proportion in lower limb reconstructions, non-bridging osteosynthesis, and in children. These complications resulted in revision surgery in 26 patients (35%).

VFG is a successful and durable technique for reconstruction of a defect in bone after resection of a tumour, but is accompanied by a significant risk of complications, that often require revision surgery. Union was not markedly influenced by the need for chemo- or radiotherapy, but should not be expected during chemotherapy. Therefore, restricted weight-bearing within this period is advocated.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:853–61.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1520 - 1524
1 Nov 2014
van der Zwaal P Pijls BG Thomassen BJW Lindenburg R Nelissen RGHH van de Sande MAJ

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural history of rheumatoid disease of the shoulder over an eight-year period. Our hypothesis was that progression of the disease is associated with a decrease in function with time.

A total of 22 patients (44 shoulders; 17 women, 5 men, (mean age 63)) with rheumatoid arthritis were followed for eight years. All shoulders were assessed using the Constant score, anteroposterior radiographs (Larsen score, Upward-Migration-Index (UMI)) and ultrasound (US). At final follow-up, the Short Form-36, disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) Score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and use of anti-rheumatic medication were determined.

The mean Constant score was 72 points (50 to 88) at baseline and 69 points (25 to 100) at final follow-up. Radiological evaluation showed progressive destruction of the peri-articular structures with time. This progression of joint and rotator cuff destruction was significantly associated with the Constant score. However, at baseline only the extent of rotator cuff disease and the UMI could predict the Constant score at final follow-up.

A plain anteroposterior radiograph of the shoulder is sufficient to assess any progression of rheumatoid disease and to predict functional outcome in the long term by using the UMI as an indicator of rotator cuff degeneration.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1520–4.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1111 - 1118
1 Aug 2014
van der Heijden L Mastboom MJL Dijkstra PDS van de Sande MAJ

We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients with a diffuse-type giant-cell tumour (Dt-GCT) (previously known as pigmented villonodular synovitis) around the knee in order to assess the influence of the type of surgery on the functional outcome and quality of life (QOL). Between 1980 and 2001, 15 of these tumours had been treated primarily at our tertiary referral centre and 15 had been referred from elsewhere with recurrent lesions.

The mean follow-up was 64 months (24 to 393). Functional outcome and QOL were assessed with range of movement and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society (MSTS) score, the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) and the SF-36 questionnaire. There was recurrence in four of 14 patients treated initially by open synovectomy. Local control was achieved after a second operation in 13 of 14 (93%). Recurrence occurred in 15 of 16 patients treated initially by arthroscopic synovectomy. These patients underwent a mean of 1.8 arthroscopies (one to eight) before open synovectomy. This achieved local control in 8 of 15 (53%) after the first synovectomy and in 12 of 15 (80%) after two. The functional outcome and QOL of patients who had undergone primary arthroscopic synovectomy and its attendant subsequent surgical procedures were compared with those who had had a primary open synovectomy using the following measures: range of movement (114º versus 127º; p = 0.03); KOOS (48 versus 71; p = 0.003); MSTS (19 versus 24; p = 0.02); TESS (75 versus 86; p = 0.03); and SF-36 (62 versus 80; p = 0.01).

Those who had undergone open synovectomy needed fewer subsequent operations. Most patients who had been referred with a recurrence had undergone an initial arthroscopic synovectomy followed by multiple further synovectomies. At the final follow-up of eight years (2 to 32), these patients had impaired function and QOL compared with those who had undergone open synovectomy initially.

We conclude that the natural history of Dt-GCT in patients who are treated by arthroscopic synovectomy has an unfavourable outcome, and that primary open synovectomy should be undertaken to prevent recurrence or residual disease.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:1111–18.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 6 | Pages 838 - 845
1 Jun 2013
Oliveira VC van der Heijden L van der Geest ICM Campanacci DA Gibbons CLMH van de Sande MAJ Dijkstra PDS

Giant cell tumours (GCTs) of the small bones of the hands and feet are rare. Small case series have been published but there is no consensus about ideal treatment. We performed a systematic review, initially screening 775 titles, and included 12 papers comprising 91 patients with GCT of the small bones of the hands and feet. The rate of recurrence across these publications was found to be 72% (18 of 25) in those treated with isolated curettage, 13% (2 of 15) in those treated with curettage plus adjuvants, 15% (6 of 41) in those treated by resection and 10% (1 of 10) in those treated by amputation.

We then retrospectively analysed 30 patients treated for GCT of the small bones of the hands and feet between 1987 and 2010 in five specialised centres. The primary treatment was curettage in six, curettage with adjuvants (phenol or liquid nitrogen with or without polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)) in 18 and resection in six. We evaluated the rate of complications and recurrence as well as the factors that influenced their functional outcome.

At a mean follow-up of 7.9 years (2 to 26) the rate of recurrence was 50% (n = 3) in those patients treated with isolated curettage, 22% (n = 4) in those treated with curettage plus adjuvants and 17% (n = 1) in those treated with resection (p = 0.404). The only complication was pain in one patient, which resolved after surgical removal of remnants of PMMA. We could not identify any individual factors associated with a higher rate of complications or recurrence. The mean post-operative Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scores were slightly higher after intra-lesional treatment including isolated curettage and curettage plus adjuvants (29 (20 to 30)) compared with resection (25 (15 to 30)) (p = 0.091). Repeated curettage with adjuvants eventually resulted in the cure for all patients and is therefore a reasonable treatment for both primary and recurrent GCT of the small bones of the hands and feet.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:838–45.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 7 | Pages 882 - 888
1 Jul 2012
van der Heijden L Gibbons CLMH Dijkstra PDS Kroep JR van Rijswijk CSP Nout RA Bradley KM Athanasou NA Hogendoorn PCW van de Sande MAJ

Giant cell tumours (GCT) of the synovium and tendon sheath can be classified into two forms: localised (giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath, or nodular tenosynovitis) and diffuse (diffuse-type giant cell tumour or pigmented villonodular synovitis). The former principally affects the small joints. It presents as a solitary slow-growing tumour with a characteristic appearance on MRI and is treated by surgical excision. There is a significant risk of multiple recurrences with aggressive diffuse disease. A multidisciplinary approach with dedicated MRI, histological assessment and planned surgery with either adjuvant radiotherapy or systemic targeted therapy is required to improve outcomes in recurrent and refractory diffuse-type GCT.

Although arthroscopic synovectomy through several portals has been advocated as an alternative to arthrotomy, there is a significant risk of inadequate excision and recurrence, particularly in the posterior compartment of the knee. For local disease partial arthroscopic synovectomy may be sufficient, at the risk of recurrence. For both local and diffuse intra-articular disease open surgery is advised for recurrent disease. Marginal excision with focal disease will suffice, not dissimilar to the treatment of GCT of tendon sheath. For recurrent and extra-articular soft-tissue disease adjuvant therapy, including intra-articular radioactive colloid or moderate-dose external beam radiotherapy, should be considered.