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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 7 | Pages 413 - 425
1 Jul 2022
Tu C Lai S Huang Z Cai G Zhao K Gao J Wu Z Zhong Z


Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in osteocytes is impaired by oxidative stress, which is associated with age-related bone loss. Ageing is accompanied by the accumulation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs). However, it is still unknown whether AOPP accumulation is involved in the impairment of osteocytes’ GJIC. This study aims to investigate the effect of AOPP accumulation on osteocytes’ GJIC in aged male mice and its mechanism.


Changes in AOPP levels, expression of connexin43 (Cx43), osteocyte network, and bone mass were detected in 18-month-old and three-month-old male mice. Cx43 expression, GJIC function, mitochondria membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation were detected in murine osteocyte-like cells (MLOY4 cells) treated with AOPPs. The Cx43 expression, osteocyte network, bone mass, and mechanical properties were detected in three-month-old mice treated with AOPPs for 12 weeks.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 1 | Pages 86 - 92
1 Jan 2012
Jeon IH Sanchez-Sotelo J Zhao K An KN Morrey BM

We undertook this study to determine the minimum amount of coronoid necessary to stabilise an otherwise intact elbow joint. Regan–Morrey types II and III, plus medial and lateral oblique coronoid fractures, collectively termed type IV fractures, were simulated in nine fresh cadavers. An electromagnetic tracking system defined the three-dimensional stability of the ulna relative to the humerus. The coronoid surface area accounts for 59% of the anterior articulation. Alteration in valgus, internal and external rotation occurred only with a type III coronoid fracture, accounting for 68% of the coronoid and 40% of the entire articular surface. A type II fracture removed 42% of the coronoid articulation and 25% of the entire articular surface but was associated with valgus and external rotational changes only when the radial head was removed, thereby removing 67% of the articular surface.

We conclude that all type III fractures, as defined here, are unstable, even with intact ligaments and a radial head. However, a type II deficiency is stable unless the radial head is removed. Our study suggests that isolated medial-oblique or lateral-oblique fractures, and even a type II fracture with intact ligaments and a functional radial head, can be clinically stable, which is consistent with clinical observation.