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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1199 - 1200
1 Nov 2000
Nakagawa S Kadoya Y Todo S Kobayashi A Sakamoto H Freeman MAR Yamano Y

We studied active flexion from 90° to 133° and passive flexion to 162° using MRI in 20 unloaded knees in Japanese subjects. Flexion over this arc is accompanied by backward movement of the medial femoral condyle of 4.0 mm and by backward movement laterally of 15 mm, i.e., by internal rotation of the tibia. At 162° the lateral femoral condyle lies posterior to the tibia.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1077 - 1082
1 Sep 2000
Shimazaki A Inui K Azuma Y Nishimura N Yamano Y

We investigated the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on distraction osteogenesis in a rabbit model.

Callotasis of the right tibia was performed in 70 male Japanese white rabbits using mini-external fixators. In the first part of the study in 64 animals using normal distraction (waiting period seven days; distraction rate 0.5 mm/12 hours; distraction period ten days), we evaluated the distraction site by radiography, measurement of the bone mineral density (BMD), mechanical testing, and histology. In the second part in six rabbits using fast distraction (waiting period 0 days; distraction rate 1.5 mm/12 hours; distraction period seven days) the site was evaluated radiologically. Half of the animals (35) had received ultrasound to their right leg (30mW/cm2) for 20 minutes daily after ceasing distraction (ultrasound group), while rigid fixation only was maintained in the other half (control group). With normal distraction, the hard callus area, as shown by radiography, the BMD, and the findings on mechanical testing, were significantly greater in those receiving ultrasound than in the control group. Histological analysis showed no tissue damage attributable to exposure to ultrasound. With fast distraction, immature bone regeneration was observed radiologically in the control group, while bone maturation was achieved in the ultrasound group.

We conclude that ultrasound can accelerate bone maturation in distraction osteogenesis in rabbits, even in states of poor callotasis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 4 | Pages 517 - 525
1 May 2000
Ohashi H Hirohashi K Yamano Y

We have reviewed 103 of 126 Chiari osteotomies carried out in our department between 1956 and 1987. The cases were graded radiologically, using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) system, into a pre/early osteoarthritis (OA) group and an advanced OA group. In the pre/early group there were 86 hips. The mean follow-up was for 17.1 years (4 to 37). Preoperatively, 51 hips had an average JOA clinical score of 78.6 ± 8.4 points and the final mean JOA clinical score was 89.4 ± 12.5 points. Advanced degenerative change developed in 33.7% and one hip required a total replacement arthroplasty (TRA). Chiari osteotomy alone, without accompanying intertrochanteric osteotomy, was performed on 62 hips. For these the median survival time was 26.0 ± 2.5 years, using as the endpoint progression to advanced OA. Differences in survivorship curves related significantly to the severity of the preoperative OA, the shape of the femoral head and the level of osteotomy. In the advanced OA group, we followed up 17 hips for a mean of 16.2 years (1 to 27). Before operation, the mean JOA clinical score in 13 hips was 63.2 ± 7.9 points and the final score 84.0 ± 12.0 points. TRA was eventually carried out on four hips.

Our findings suggest that the Chiari osteotomy remains radiologically effective for about 25 years. The procedure is best suited to subluxated hips with round or flat femoral heads and early or no degenerative change. Intra-articular osteotomy can lead to osteonecrosis, and should be avoided. In hips with advanced OA, the Chiari procedure creates an acetabulum which facilitates later TRA, and may delay the need for this procedure in younger patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 2 | Pages 222 - 227
1 Mar 2000
Fukuoka S Yoshida K Yamano Y

Accurate quantitative measurements of micromovement immediately after operation would be a reliable indicator of the stability of an individual component. We have therefore developed a system for measuring micromovement of the tibial component using three non-contact displacement transducers attached to the tibial cortex during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Using this system we measured the initial stability in 31 uncemented TKAs. All the tibial components were fixed by a stem and four screws. The initial stability was defined as the amount of displacement when a load of 20 kg was applied. The mean subsidence was 60.7 μm and the mean lift-off was 103.3 μm.

We also studied the migration of the tibial component using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) for up to two years after operation. Most migration occurred during the first six months, after which all prostheses remained stable. We defined migration as the maximum total point motion (MTPM) at two years after operation. The mean migration was 1.29 mm at two years.

Our results show that there was a significant correlation between the initial stability and migration (p < 0.05) and emphasise the importance of the initial stability of the tibial component.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 71-B, Issue 4 | Pages 599 - 601
1 Aug 1989
Yamano Y

The design and use of a prong plate for the treatment of displaced fractures of the femoral neck is described. The prongs hold the femoral head, and the plate is screwed to the anterior cortex of the femoral neck and trochanteric region. The new plate has been used in 32 patients with Garden stage III or IV fractures and 29 had a good result. Bony union was seen within 11 weeks in all patients in whom bleeding of the femoral head was noted at operation, but was much delayed in patients without bleeding. Late segmental aseptic necrosis was seen in four patients after follow-up of at least two years, and successfully treated. The prong plate allows accurate reduction, impaction and strong rigid fixation with less disturbance of the intramedullary blood flow than other fixation methods.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 69-B, Issue 3 | Pages 483 - 483
1 May 1987
Mikawa Y Watanabe R Yamano Y Ishii K