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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 93 - 98
1 Jan 2024
Broida SE Tsoi KM Rose PS Ferguson PC Griffin AM Wunder JS Houdek MT


The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is the only mechanical connection between the axial skeleton and lower limbs. Following iliosacral resection, there is debate on whether reconstruction of the joint is necessary. There is a paucity of data comparing the outcomes of patients undergoing reconstruction and those who are not formally reconstructed.


A total of 60 patients (25 females, 35 males; mean age 39 years (SD 18)) undergoing iliosacral resection were reviewed. Most resections were performed for primary malignant tumours (n = 54; 90%). The mean follow-up for surviving patients was nine years (2 to 19).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 7 | Pages 808 - 814
1 Jul 2023
Gundavda MK Lazarides AL Burke ZDC Focaccia M Griffin AM Tsoi KM Ferguson PC Wunder JS


The preoperative grading of chondrosarcomas of bone that accurately predicts surgical management is difficult for surgeons, radiologists, and pathologists. There are often discrepancies in grade between the initial biopsy and the final histology. Recent advances in the use of imaging methods have shown promise in the ability to predict the final grade. The most important clinical distinction is between grade 1 chondrosarcomas, which are amenable to curettage, and resection-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2 and 3) which require en bloc resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a Radiological Aggressiveness Score (RAS) to predict the grade of primary chondrosarcomas in long bones and thus to guide management.


A total of 113 patients with a primary chondrosarcoma of a long bone presenting between January 2001 and December 2021 were identified on retrospective review of a single oncology centre’s prospectively collected database. The nine-parameter RAS included variables from radiographs and MRI scans. The best cut-off of parameters to predict the final grade of chondrosarcoma after resection was determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), and this was correlated with the biopsy grade.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 559 - 567
1 May 2023
Aoude A Nikomarov D Perera JR Ibe IK Griffin AM Tsoi KM Ferguson PC Wunder JS


Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive lesion that is difficult to treat as salvaging the joint can be associated with a high rate of local recurrence (LR). We evaluated the risk factors for tumour relapse after treatment of a GCTB of the limbs.


A total of 354 consecutive patients with a GCTB underwent joint salvage by curettage and reconstruction with bone graft and/or cement or en bloc resection. Patient, tumour, and treatment factors were analyzed for their impact on LR. Patients treated with denosumab were excluded.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 9 | Pages 602 - 610
24 Sep 2021
Tsoi KM Gokgoz N Darville-O'Quinn P Prochazka P Malekoltojari A Griffin AM Ferguson PC Wunder JS Andrulis IL


Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) are used for prognostication and monitoring in patients with carcinomas, but their utility is unclear in sarcomas. The objectives of this pilot study were to explore the prognostic significance of cfDNA and investigate whether tumour-specific alterations can be detected in the circulation of sarcoma patients.


Matched tumour and blood were collected from 64 sarcoma patients (n = 70 samples) prior to resection of the primary tumour (n = 57) or disease recurrence (n = 7). DNA was isolated from plasma, quantified, and analyzed for cfDNA. A subset of cases (n = 6) underwent whole exome sequencing to identify tumour-specific alterations used to detect ctDNA using digital droplet polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 2 | Pages 391 - 397
1 Feb 2021
Houdek MT Wunder JS Abdel MP Griffin AM Hevesi M Rose PS Ferguson PC Lewallen DG


Hip reconstruction after resection of a periacetabular chondrosarcoma is complex and associated with a high rate of complications. Previous reports have compared no reconstruction with historical techniques that are no longer used. The aim of this study was to compare the results of tantalum acetabular reconstruction to both historical techniques and no reconstruction.


We reviewed 66 patients (45 males and 21 females) with a mean age of 53 years (24 to 81) who had undergone acetabular resection for chondrosarcoma. A total of 36 patients (54%) underwent acetabular reconstruction, most commonly with a saddle prosthesis (n = 13; 36%) or a tantalum total hip arthroplasty (THA) (n = 10; 28%). Mean follow-up was nine years (SD 4).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 1 | Pages 184 - 191
1 Jan 2021
Perrin DL Visgauss JD Wilson DA Griffin AM Abdul Razak AR Ferguson PC Wunder JS


Local recurrence remains a challenging and common problem following curettage and joint-sparing surgery for giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB). We previously reported a 15% local recurrence rate at a median follow-up of 30 months in 20 patients with high-risk GCTB treated with neoadjuvant Denosumab. The aim of this study was to determine if this initial favourable outcome following the use of Denosumab was maintained with longer follow-up.


Patients with GCTB of the limb considered high-risk for unsuccessful joint salvage, due to minimal periarticular and subchondral bone, large soft tissue mass, or pathological fracture, were treated with Denosumab followed by extended intralesional curettage with the goal of preserving the joint surface. Patients were followed for local recurrence, metastasis, and secondary sarcoma.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1752 - 1759
1 Dec 2020
Tsuda Y Tsoi K Stevenson JD Laitinen M Ferguson PC Wunder JS Griffin AM van de Sande MAJ van Praag V Leithner A Fujiwara T Yasunaga H Matsui H Parry MC Jeys LM


Our aim was to develop and validate nomograms that would predict the cumulative incidence of sarcoma-specific death (CISSD) and disease progression (CIDP) in patients with localized high-grade primary central and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma.


The study population consisted of 391 patients from two international sarcoma centres (development cohort) who had undergone definitive surgery for a localized high-grade (histological grade II or III) conventional primary central chondrosarcoma or dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Disease progression captured the first event of either metastasis or local recurrence. An independent cohort of 221 patients from three additional hospitals was used for external validation. Two nomograms were internally and externally validated for discrimination (c-index) and calibration plot.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 7 | Pages 973 - 978
1 Jul 2017
Gupta S Kafchinski LA Gundle KR Saidi K Griffin AM Wunder JS Ferguson PC


Intercalary allografts following resection of a primary diaphyseal tumour have high rates of complications and failures. At our institution intercalary allografts are augmented with intramedullary cement and fixed using compression plating. Our aim was to evaluate their long-term outcomes.

Patients and Methods

A total of 46 patients underwent reconstruction with an intercalary allograft between 1989 and 2014. The patients had a mean age of 32.8 years (14 to 77). The most common diagnoses were osteosarcoma (n = 16) and chondrosarcoma (n = 9). The location of the tumours was in the femur in 21, the tibia in 16 and the humerus in nine. Function was assessed using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system and the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS). The survival of the graft and the overall survival were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 4 | Pages 550 - 557
1 Apr 2015
Mollon B Lee A Busse JW Griffin AM Ferguson PC Wunder JS Theodoropoulos J

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative process of the synovium which most commonly affects the knee and occurs in either a localised (LPVNS) or a diffuse form (DPVNS). The effect of different methods of surgical synovectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy on the rate of recurrence is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and identified 35 observational studies in English which reported the use of surgical synovectomy to treat PVNS of the knee.

A meta-analysis included 630 patients, 137 (21.8%) of whom had a recurrence after synovectomy. For patients with DPVNS, low-quality evidence found that the rate of recurrence was reduced by both open synovectomy (odds ration (OR) = 0.47; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90; p = 0.024) and combined open and arthroscopic synovectomy (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.58; p = 0.003) compared with arthroscopic surgery. Very low-quality evidence found that the rate of recurrence of DPVNS was reduced by peri-operative radiotherapy (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.70; p = 0.01). Very low-quality evidence suggested that the rate of recurrence of LPVNS was not related to the surgical approach.

This meta-analysis suggests that open synovectomy or synovectomy combined with peri-operative radiotherapy for DPVNS is associated with a reduced rate of recurrence. Large long-term prospective multicentre observational studies, with a focus on both rate of recurrence and function, are required to confirm these findings.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:550–7.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1144 - 1148
1 Aug 2013
Sternheim A Saidi K Lochab J O’Donnell PW Eward WC Griffin A Wunder JS Ferguson P

We investigated the clinical outcome of internal fixation for pathological fracture of the femur after primary excision of a soft-tissue sarcoma that had been treated with adjuvant radiotherapy.

A review of our database identified 22 radiation-induced fractures of the femur in 22 patients (seven men, 15 women). We noted the mechanism of injury, fracture pattern and any complications after internal fixation, including nonunion, hardware failure, secondary fracture or deep infection.

The mean age of the patients at primary excision of the tumour was 58.3 years (39 to 86). The mean time from primary excision to fracture was 73.2 months (2 to 195). The mean follow-up after fracture fixation was 65.9 months (12 to 205). Complications occurred in 19 patients (86%). Nonunion developed in 18 patients (82%), of whom 11 had a radiological nonunion at 12 months, five a nonunion and hardware failure and two an infected nonunion. One patient developed a second radiation-associated fracture of the femur after internal fixation and union of the initial fracture. A total of 13 patients (59%) underwent 24 revision operations.

Internal fixation of a pathological fracture of the femur after radiotherapy for a soft-tissue sarcoma has an extremely high rate of complication and requires specialist attention.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1144–8.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1093 - 1097
1 Aug 2011
Weiss KR Bhumbra R Biau DJ Griffin AM Deheshi B Wunder JS Ferguson PC

Pathological fractures of the humerus are associated with pain, morbidity, loss of function and a diminished quality of life. We report our experience of stabilising these fractures using polymethylmethacrylate and non-locking plates. We undertook a retrospective review over 20 years of patients treated at a tertiary musculoskeletal oncology centre. Those who had undergone surgery for an impending or completed pathological humeral fracture with a diagnosis of metastatic disease or myeloma were identified from our database. There were 63 patients (43 men, 20 women) in the series with a mean age of 63 years (39 to 87).

All had undergone intralesional curettage of the tumour followed by fixation with intramedullary polymethylmethacrylate and plating. Complications occurred in 14 patients (22.2%) and seven (11.1%) required re-operation. At the latest follow-up, 47 patients (74.6%) were deceased and 16 (25.4%) were living with a mean follow-up of 75 months (1 to 184). A total of 54 (86%) patients had no or mild pain and 50 (80%) required no or minimal assistance with activities of daily living. Of the 16 living patients none had pain and all could perform activities of daily living without assistance.

Intralesional resection of the tumour, filling of the cavity with cement, and plate stabilisation of the pathological fracture gives immediate rigidity and allows an early return of function without the need for bony union. The patient’s local disease burden is reduced, which may alleviate tumour-related pain and slow the progression of the disease. The cemented-plate technique provides a reliable option for the treatment of pathological fractures of the humerus.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1475 - 1479
1 Oct 2010
Gortzak Y Kandel R Deheshi B Werier J Turcotte RE Ferguson PC Wunder JS

Various chemicals are commonly used as adjuvant treatment to surgery for giant-cell tumour (GCT) of bone. The comparative effect of these solutions on the cells of GCT is not known. In this study we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of sterile water, 95% ethanol, 5% phenol, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 50% zinc chloride (ZnCI2) on GCT monolayer tumour cultures which were established from six patients. The DNA content, the metabolic activity and the viability of the cultured samples of tumour cells were assessed at various times up to 120 hours after their exposure to these solutions.

Equal cytotoxicity to the GCT monolayer culture was observed for 95% ethanol, 5% phenol, 3% H2O2 and 50% ZnCI2. The treated samples showed significant reductions in DNA content and metabolic activity 24 hours after treatment and this was sustained for up to 120 hours. The samples treated with sterile water showed an initial decline in DNA content and viability 24 hours after treatment, but the surviving cells were viable and had proliferated. No multinucleated cell formation was seen in these cultures.

These results suggest that the use of chemical adjuvants other than water could help improve local control in the treatment of GCT of bone.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1480 - 1486
1 Nov 2006
Pradhan A Cheung YC Grimer RJ Abudu A Peake D Ferguson PC Griffin AM Wunder JS O’Sullivan B Hugate R Sim FH

We have investigated the significance of the method of treatment on the oncological and functional outcomes and on the complications in 184 patients with soft-tissue sarcomas of the adductor compartment managed at three international centres. The overall survival at five years was 65% and was related to the grade at diagnosis and the size of the tumour. There was no difference in overall survival between the three centres. There was, however, a significant difference in local control with a rate of 28% in Centre 1 compared with 10% in Centre 2 and 5% in Centre 3.

The overall mean functional score using the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score in 70 patients was 77% but was significantly worse in patients with wound complications or high-grade tumours. The scores were not affected by the timing of radiotherapy or the use of muscle flaps.

This large series of soft-tissue sarcomas of the adductor compartment has shown that factors influencing survival do not vary across the international boundaries studied, but that methods of treatment affect complications, local recurrence and function.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 6 | Pages 870 - 872
1 Aug 2002
Plasschaert F Craig C Bell R Cole WG Wunder JS Alman BA

Localised Langerhans-cell histiocytosis of bone (eosinophilic granuloma) is a benign tumour-like condition with a variable clinical course. Different forms of treatment have been reported to give satisfactory results. However, previous series all contain patients with a wide age range. Our aim was to investigate the effect of skeletal maturity on the rate of recurrence of isolated eosinophilic granuloma of bone excluding those arising in the spine.

We followed up 32 patients with an isolated eosinophilic granuloma for a mean of five years; 17 were skeletally immature. No recurrences were noted in the skeletally immature group even after biopsy alone. By contrast, four of 13 skeletally mature patients had a recurrence and required further surgery. This suggests that eosinophilic granuloma has a low rate of recurrence in skeletally immature patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1149 - 1155
1 Nov 2001
Gerrand CH Wunder JS Kandel RA O’Sullivan B Catton CN Bell RS Griffin AM Davis AM

We considered whether a positive margin occurring after resection of a soft-tissue sarcoma of a limb would affect the incidence of local recurrence. Patients with low-grade liposarcomas were expected to be a low-risk group as were those who had positive margins planned before surgery to preserve critical structures. Two groups, however, were expected to be at a higher risk, namely, patients who had undergone unplanned excision elsewhere with a positive margin on re-excision and those with unplanned positive margins occurring during primary resection.

Of 566 patients in a prospective database, 87 with positive margins after limb-sparing surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy were grouped according to the clinical scenario by an observer blinded to the outcome. The rate of local recurrence differed significantly between the two low- (4.2% and 3.6%) and the two high-risk groups (31.6% and 37.5%). This classification therefore provides useful information about the incidence of local recurrence after positive-margin resection.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 1 | Pages 120 - 125
1 Jan 2000
Lan F Wunder JS Griffin AM Davis AM Bell RS White LM Ichise M Cole W

We used dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to evaluate the extent of periprosthetic bone remodelling around a prosthesis for distal femoral reconstruction, the Kotz modular femoral tibial replacement (KMFTR; Howmedica, Rutherford, New Jersey). A total of 23 patients was entered into the study which had four parts: 1) 17 patients were scanned three times on both the implant and contralateral legs to determine whether the precision of DEXA measurements was adequate to estimate bone loss surrounding the anchorage piece of the KMFTR; 2) in 23 patients the bone mineral density (BMD) in different regions of interest surrounding the diaphyseal anchorage was compared with that of the contralateral femur at the same location to test whether there was consistent evidence of loss of BMD adjacent to the prosthetic stem; 3) in 12 patients sequential studies were performed about one year apart to compare bone loss; and 4) bone loss was compared in ten patients with implants fixed by three screws and in 13 without screws.

The mean coefficients of variation (SD/mean) for the 17 sets of repeated scans ranged from 2.9% to 7.8% at different regions of interest in the KMFTR leg and from 1.4% to 2.5% in the contralateral leg. BMD was decreased in the KMFTR leg relative to the contralateral limb and the percentage of BMD loss in general increased as the region of interest moved distally in the femur. Studies done after one year showed no consistent pattern of progressive bone loss between the two measurements. The ten patients with implants fixed by screws were found to have a mean loss of BMD of 42% in the most distal part of the femur, while the 13 without screw fixation had a mean loss of 11%.

DEXA was shown to have adequate precision to evaluate loss of BMD around the KMFTR. This was evident relative to the contralateral leg in all patients and generally increased in the most distal part of the femur. In general, it stabilised between two measurements taken one year apart and was greater surrounding implants fixed by cross-locking screws.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 1 | Pages 38 - 42
1 Jan 1998
Gibbons CLMH Bell RS Wunder JS Griffin AM O’Sullivan B Catton CN Davis AM

We describe the functional results in 14 patients (7 men, 7 women) after subtotal scapulectomy for primary bone and soft-tissue tumours at a specialist musculoskeletal oncology unit. Eight had chondrosarcomas, two Ewing’s sarcomas, one aggressive fibromatosis and three soft-tissue sarcomas. The mean follow-up was 52 months (6 to 120). Analysis of residual symptoms and of range and strength of movement by physicians used the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society rating scale (MSTS). Physical disability was measured by the patients using the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS).

All 14 patients are still alive, two with systemic disease. Nine had more than 80% of their scapula resected but the glenohumeral joint was preserved in all cases. Eight had full movement and another two achieved 90° of flexion. The mean functional results were good to excellent in all except three patients (mean MSTS = 71.6 and TESS = 79.9). Two of these three patients had considerable pain as a result of brachial neuropathy.

Scapulectomy gives an excellent functional result if the glenohumeral joint is preserved. The rotator cuff could be removed without a severe functional deficit provided that the deltoid was reattached to the scapular remnant and the trapezius.