header advert
Results 1 - 20 of 31
Results per page:
The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 4 | Pages 372 - 379
1 Apr 2024
Straub J Staats K Vertesich K Kowalscheck L Windhager R Böhler C


Histology is widely used for diagnosis of persistent infection during reimplantation in two-stage revision hip and knee arthroplasty, although data on its utility remain scarce. Therefore, this study aims to assess the predictive value of permanent sections at reimplantation in relation to reinfection risk, and to compare results of permanent and frozen sections.


We retrospectively collected data from 226 patients (90 hips, 136 knees) with periprosthetic joint infection who underwent two-stage revision between August 2011 and September 2021, with a minimum follow-up of one year. Histology was assessed via the SLIM classification. First, we analyzed whether patients with positive permanent sections at reimplantation had higher reinfection rates than patients with negative histology. Further, we compared permanent and frozen section results, and assessed the influence of anatomical regions (knee versus hip), low- versus high-grade infections, as well as first revision versus multiple prior revisions on the histological result at reimplantation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), chi-squared tests, and Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 2 | Pages 158 - 165
1 Feb 2023
Sigmund IK Yeghiazaryan L Luger M Windhager R Sulzbacher I McNally MA


The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal deep tissue specimen sample number for histopathological analysis in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI).


In this retrospective diagnostic study, patients undergoing revision surgery after total hip or knee arthroplasty (n = 119) between January 2015 and July 2018 were included. Multiple specimens of the periprosthetic membrane and pseudocapsule were obtained for histopathological analysis at revision arthroplasty. Based on the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) 2013 criteria, the International Consensus Meeting (ICM) 2018 criteria, and the European Bone and Joint Infection Society (EBJIS) 2021 criteria, PJI was defined. Using a mixed effects logistic regression model, the sensitivity and specificity of the histological diagnosis were calculated. The optimal number of periprosthetic tissue specimens for histopathological analysis was determined by applying the Youden index.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 9 | Pages 608 - 618
7 Sep 2022
Sigmund IK Luger M Windhager R McNally MA


This study evaluated the definitions developed by the European Bone and Joint Infection Society (EBJIS) 2021, the International Consensus Meeting (ICM) 2018, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) 2013, for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI).


In this single-centre, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data, patients with an indicated revision surgery after a total hip or knee arthroplasty were included between 2015 and 2020. A standardized diagnostic workup was performed, identifying the components of the EBJIS, ICM, and IDSA criteria in each patient.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 5 | Pages 260 - 269
3 May 2022
Staats K Sosa BR Kuyl E Niu Y Suhardi V Turajane K Windhager R Greenblatt MB Ivashkiv L Bostrom MPG Yang X


To develop an early implant instability murine model and explore the use of intermittent parathyroid hormone (iPTH) treatment for initially unstable implants.


3D-printed titanium implants were inserted into an oversized drill-hole in the tibiae of C57Bl/6 mice (n = 54). After implantation, the mice were randomly divided into three treatment groups (phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-control, iPTH, and delayed iPTH). Radiological analysis, micro-CT (µCT), and biomechanical pull-out testing were performed to assess implant loosening, bone formation, and osseointegration. Peri-implant tissue formation and cellular composition were evaluated by histology.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 8 | Pages 536 - 547
2 Aug 2021
Sigmund IK McNally MA Luger M Böhler C Windhager R Sulzbacher I


Histology is an established tool in diagnosing periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Different thresholds, using various infection definitions and histopathological criteria, have been described. This study determined the performance of different thresholds of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (≥ 5 PMN/HPF, ≥ 10 PMN/HPF, ≥ 23 PMN/10 HPF) , when using the European Bone and Joint Infection Society (EBJIS), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and the International Consensus Meeting (ICM) 2018 criteria for PJI.


A total of 119 patients undergoing revision total hip (rTHA) or knee arthroplasty (rTKA) were included. Permanent histology sections of periprosthetic tissue were evaluated under high power (400× magnification) and neutrophils were counted per HPF. The mean neutrophil count in ten HPFs was calculated (PMN/HPF). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and the z-test, thresholds were compared.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 3 | Pages 553 - 561
1 Mar 2021
Smolle MA Leithner A Kapper M Demmer G Trost C Bergovec M Windhager R Hobusch GM


The aims of the study were to analyze differences in surgical and oncological outcomes, as well as quality of life (QoL) and function in patients with ankle sarcomas undergoing three forms of surgical treatment, minor or major limb salvage surgery (LSS), or amputation.


A total of 69 patients with ankle sarcomas, treated between 1981 and 2017 at two tumour centres, were retrospectively reviewed (mean age at surgery: 46.3 years (SD 22.0); 31 females (45%)). Among these 69 patients 25 were analyzed prospectively (mean age at latest follow-up: 61.2 years (SD 20.7); 11 females (44%)), and assessed for mobility using the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M; for amputees only), the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS), and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Activity Score. Individual QoL was evaluated in these 25 patients using the five-level EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D-5L) and Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit/Questions on Life Satisfaction (FLZ).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 4 | Pages 426 - 433
1 Apr 2020
Boettner F Sculco P Faschingbauer M Rueckl K Windhager R Kasparek MF


To compare patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with ≤ 80° range of movement (ROM) operated with a 2 mm increase in the flexion gap with matched non-stiff patients with at least 100° of preoperative ROM and balanced flexion and extension gaps.


In a retrospective cohort study, 98 TKAs (91 patients) with a preoperative ROM of ≤ 80° were examined. Mean follow-up time was 53 months (24 to 112). All TKAs in stiff knees were performed with a 2 mm increased flexion gap. Data were compared to a matched control group of 98 TKAs (86 patients) with a mean follow-up of 43 months (24 to 89). Knees in the control group had a preoperative ROM of at least 100° and balanced flexion and extension gaps. In all stiff and non-stiff knees posterior stabilized (PS) TKAs with patellar resurfacing in combination with adequate soft tissue balancing were used.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 3 | Pages 146 - 151
1 Mar 2020
Waldstein W Koller U Springer B Kolbitsch P Brodner W Windhager R Lass R


Second-generation metal-on-metal (MoM) articulations in total hip arthroplasty (THA) were introduced in order to reduce wear-related complications. The current study reports on the serum cobalt levels and the clinical outcome at a minimum of 20 years following THA with a MoM (Metasul) or a ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP) bearing.


The present study provides an update of a previously published prospective randomized controlled study, evaluating the serum cobalt levels of a consecutive cohort of 100 patients following THA with a MoM or a CoP articulation. A total of 31 patients were available for clinical and radiological follow-up examination. After exclusion of 11 patients because of other cobalt-containing implants, 20 patients (MoM (n = 11); CoP (n = 9)) with a mean age of 69 years (42 to 97) were analyzed. Serum cobalt levels were compared to serum cobalt levels five years out of surgery.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 3 | Pages 288 - 296
1 Mar 2019
Sigmund IK Holinka J Sevelda F Staats K Heisinger S Kubista B McNally MA Windhager R


This study aimed to assess the performance of an automated multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) technique for rapid diagnosis of native joint septic arthritis

Patients and Methods

Consecutive patients with suspected septic arthritis undergoing aseptic diagnostic joint aspiration were included. The aspirate was used for analysis by mPCR and conventional microbiological analysis. A joint was classed as septic according to modified Newman criteria. Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) values of the mPCR and the synovial fluid culture were compared using the z-test. A total of 72 out of 76 consecutive patients (33 women, 39 men; mean age 64 years (22 to 92)) with suspected septic arthritis were included in this study.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1175 - 1181
1 Sep 2018
Benca E Willegger M Wenzel F Hirtler L Zandieh S Windhager R Schuh R


The traditional transosseus flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer for patients with Achilles tendinopathy requires two incisions to harvest a long tendon graft. The use of a bio-tenodesis screw enables a short graft to be used and is less invasive, but lacks supporting evidence about its biomechanical behaviour. We aimed, in this study, to compare the strength of the traditional transosseus tendon-to-tendon fixation with tendon-to-bone fixation using a tenodesis screw, in cyclical loading and ultimate load testing.

Materials and Methods

Tendon grafts were undertaken in 24 paired lower-leg specimens and randomly assigned in two groups using fixation with a transosseus suture (suture group) or a tenodesis screw (screw group). The biomechanical behaviour was evaluated using cyclical and ultimate loading tests. The Student’s t-test was performed to assess statistically significant differences in bone mineral density (BMD), displacement, the slope of the load-displacement curves, and load to failure.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 6 | Pages 841 - 848
1 Jun 2017
Hipfl C Stihsen C Puchner SE Kaider A Dominkus M Funovics PT Windhager R


Pelvic reconstruction after the resection of a tumour around the acetabulum is a challenging procedure due to the complex anatomy and biomechanics. Several pelvic endoprostheses have been introduced, but the rates of complication remain high. Our aim was to review the use of a stemmed acetabular pedestal cup in the management of these patients.

Patients and Methods

The study involved 48 patients who underwent periacetabular reconstruction using a stemmed pedestal cup (Schoellner cup; Zimmer Biomet Inc., Warsaw, Indiana) between 2000 and 2013. The indications for treatment included a primary bone tumour in 27 patients and metastatic disease in 21 patients. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 52 years (16 to 83).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 5 | Pages 686 - 696
1 May 2017
Stihsen C Panotopoulos J Puchner SE Sevelda F Kaider A Windhager R Funovics PT


Few studies dealing with chondrosarcoma of the pelvis are currently available. Different data about the overall survival and prognostic factors have been published but without a detailed analysis of surgery-related complications. We aimed to analyse the outcome of a series of pelvic chondrosarcomas treated at a single institution, with particular attention to the prognostic factors. Based on a competing risk model, our objective was to identify risk factors for the development of complications.

Patients and Methods

In a retrospective single-centre study, 58 chondrosarcomas (26 patients alive, 32 patients dead) of the pelvis were reviewed. The mean follow-up was 13 years (one week to 23.1 years).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 4 | Pages 531 - 537
1 Apr 2017
Henderson ER Keeney BJ Pala E Funovics PT Eward WC Groundland JS Ehrlichman LK Puchner SSE Brigman BE Ready JE Temple HT Ruggieri P Windhager R Letson GD Hornicek FJ


Instability of the hip is the most common mode of failure after reconstruction with a proximal femoral arthroplasty (PFA) using an endoprosthesis after excision of a tumour. Small studies report improved stability with capsular repair of the hip and other techniques, but these have not been investigated in a large series of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate variables associated with the patient and the operation that affect post-operative stability. We hypothesised an association between capsular repair and stability.

Patients and Methods

In a retrospective cohort study, we identified 527 adult patients who were treated with a PFA for tumours. Our data included demographics, the pathological diagnosis, the amount of resection of the abductor muscles, the techniques of reconstruction and the characteristics of the implant. We used regression analysis to compare patients with and without post-operative instability.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 1 | Pages 66 - 72
1 Jan 2017
Sigmund IK Holinka J Gamper J Staats K Böhler C Kubista B Windhager R


The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains demanding due to limitations of all the available diagnostic tests. The synovial fluid marker, α-defensin, is a promising adjunct for the assessment of potential PJI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the qualitative assessment of α-defensin, using Synovasure to detect or exclude periprosthetic infection in total joint arthroplasty.

Patients and Methods

We studied 50 patients (28 women, 22 men, mean age 65 years; 20 to 89) with a clinical indication for revision arthroplasty who met the inclusion criteria of this prospective diagnostic study. The presence of α-defensin was determined using the qualitative Synovasure test and compared with standard diagnostic methods for PJI. Based on modified Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria, 13 cases were categorised as septic and 36 as aseptic revisions. One test was inconclusive.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 6 | Pages 772 - 779
1 Jun 2016
Stihsen C Hipfl C Kubista B Funovics PT Dominkus M Giurea A Windhager R


Until now, there has been no consensus as to whether stemmed acetabular components are appropriate for use in patients undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) who have major acetabular defects or pelvic discontinuity. We wished to address this deficiency in the literature.

Patients and Methods

We carried out a retrospective study of 35 patients (six men and 29 women) with a mean age of 68 years (37 to 87), with major acetabular defects who underwent revision THA between 2000 and 2012.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1436 - 1440
1 Nov 2014
Henderson ER O’Connor MI Ruggieri P Windhager R Funovics PT Gibbons CL Guo W Hornicek FJ Temple HT Letson GD

Previous classification systems of failure of limb salvage focused primarily on endoprosthetic failures and lacked sufficient depth for the effective study of the causes of failure. In order to address these inadequacies, the International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS) formed a committee to recommend revisions of the previous systems. The purpose of this study was to report on their recommendations. The modifications were prepared using an earlier, evidence-based model with subclassification based on the existing medical literature. Subclassification for all five primary types of failure of limb salvage following endoprosthetic reconstruction were formulated and a complementary system was derived for the failure of biological reconstruction. An additional classification of failure in paediatric patients was also described.

Limb salvage surgery presents a complex array of potential mechanisms of failure, and a complete and precise classification of types of failure is required. Earlier classification systems lacked specificity, and the evidence-based system outlined here is designed to correct these weaknesses and to provide a means of reporting failures of limb salvage in order to allow the interpretation of outcome following reconstructive surgery.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1436–40.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1258 - 1263
1 Sep 2014
Schuh R Panotopoulos J Puchner SE Willegger M M. Hobusch G Windhager R Funovics PT

Resection of a primary sarcoma of the diaphysis of a long bone creates a large defect. The biological options for reconstruction include the use of a vascularised and non-vascularised fibular autograft.

The purpose of the present study was to compare these methods of reconstruction.

Between 1985 and 2007, 53 patients (26 male and 27 female) underwent biological reconstruction of a diaphyseal defect after resection of a primary sarcoma. Their mean age was 20.7 years (3.6 to 62.4). Of these, 26 (49 %) had a vascularised and 27 (51 %) a non-vascularised fibular autograft. Either method could have been used for any patient in the study. The mean follow-up was 52 months (12 to 259). Oncological, surgical and functional outcome were evaluated. Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed for graft survival with major complication as the end point.

At final follow-up, eight patients had died of disease. Primary union was achieved in 40 patients (75%); 22 (42%) with a vascularised fibular autograft and 18 (34%) a non-vascularised (p = 0.167). A total of 32 patients (60%) required revision surgery. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed a mean survival without complication of 36 months (0.06 to 107.3, sd 9) for the vascularised group and 88 months (0.33 to 163.9, sd 16) for the non-vascularised group (p = 0.035).

Both groups seem to be reliable biological methods of reconstructing a diaphyseal bone defect. Vascularised autografts require more revisions mainly due to problems with wound healing in distal sites of tumour, such as the foot.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1258–63.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 7 | Pages 988 - 992
1 Jul 2013
Glehr M Leithner A Friesenbichler J Goessler W Avian A Andreou D Maurer-Ertl W Windhager R Tunn P

The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence of local argyria in patients with silver-coated megaprostheses and to identify a possible association between argyria and elevated levels of silver both locally and in the blood. Between 2004 and 2011, 32 megaprostheses with silver coatings were implanted in 20 female and 12 male patients following revision arthroplasty for infection or resection of a malignant tumour, and the levels of silver locally in drains and seromas and in the blood were determined. The mean age of the patients was 46 years (10 to 81); one patient died in the immediate post-operative period and was excluded.

Seven patients (23%) developed local argyria after a median of 25.7 months (interquartile range 2 to 44.5). Patients with and without local argyria had comparable levels of silver in the blood and aspiration fluids. The length of the implant did not influence the development of local argyria. Patients with clinical evidence of local argyria had no neurological symptoms and no evidence of renal or hepatic failure. Thus, we conclude that the short-term surveillance of blood silver levels in these patients is not required.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:988–92.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 5 | Pages 678 - 682
1 May 2013
Holinka J Pilz M Kubista B Presterl E Windhager R

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether coating titanium discs with selenium in the form of sodium selenite decreased bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. epidermidis and impeded osteoblastic cell growth.

In order to evaluate bacterial adhesion, sterile titanium discs were coated with increasing concentrations of selenium and incubated with bacterial solutions of Staph. aureus (ATCC 29213) and Staph. epidermidis (DSM 3269) and stained with Safranin-O. The effect of selenium on osteoblastic cell growth was also observed. The adherence of MG-63 cells on the coated discs was detected by staining with Safranin-O. The proportion of covered area was calculated with imaging software.

The tested Staph. aureus strain showed a significantly reduced attachment on titanium discs with 0.5% (p = 0.011) and 0.2% (p = 0.02) selenium coating. Our test strain from Staph. epidermidis showed a highly significant reduction in bacterial adherence on discs coated with 0.5% (p = 0.0099) and 0.2% (p = 0.002) selenium solution. There was no inhibitory effect of the selenium coating on the osteoblastic cell growth.

Selenium coating is a promising method to reduce bacterial attachment on prosthetic material.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:678–82.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 2 | Pages 174 - 177
1 Mar 2003
Jeserschek R Clar H Aigner C Rehak P Primus B Windhager R

We have investigated in a prospective, randomised placebo-controlled study the effect of high-dose aprotinin on blood loss in patients admitted for major surgery (revision arthroplasty of the hip or knee, or for resection of a soft-tissue sarcoma). The mean intraoperative blood loss was reduced from 1957 ml in the control group to 736 ml in the aprotinin group (p = 0.002). The mean requirement for intraoperative homologous blood transfusion in the aprotinin group was 1.4 units (95% CI 0.2 to 2.7) and 3.1 units (95% CI 1.7 to 4.6) in the control group (p = 0.033). The mean length of hospital stay was reduced from 27.8 days in the control group to 17.6 days in the aprotinin group which was not statistically significant.

The intraoperative use of aprotinin in major orthopaedic operations significantly reduced blood loss and the required amount of packed cells. It may result in a decrease in the length of hospital stay and costs.