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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1020 - 1026
1 Aug 2016
Śmigielski R Zdanowicz U Drwięga M Ciszek B Williams A

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is commonly performed and has been for many years. Despite this, the technical details related to ACL anatomy, such as tunnel placement, are still a topic for debate. In this paper, we introduce the flat ribbon concept of the anatomy of the ACL, and its relevance to clinical practice.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1020–6.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 3 | Pages 325 - 331
1 Mar 2014
Dodds AL Halewood C Gupte CM Williams A Amis AA

There have been differing descriptions of the anterolateral structures of the knee, and not all have been named or described clearly. The aim of this study was to provide a clear anatomical interpretation of these structures. We dissected 40 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees to view the relevant anatomy and identified a consistent structure in 33 knees (83%); we termed this the anterolateral ligament of the knee. This structure passes antero-distally from an attachment proximal and posterior to the lateral femoral epicondyle to the margin of the lateral tibial plateau, approximately midway between Gerdy’s tubercle and the head of the fibula. The ligament is superficial to the lateral (fibular) collateral ligament proximally, from which it is distinct, and separate from the capsule of the knee. In the eight knees in which it was measured, we observed that the ligament was isometric from 0° to 60° of flexion of the knee, then slackened when the knee flexed further to 90° and was lengthened by imposing tibial internal rotation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:325–31.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 7 | Pages 949 - 953
1 Jul 2010
Narvani A Mahmud T Lavelle J Williams A

Most injuries to the medial collateral ligament (MCL) heal well after conservative treatment. We have identified a subgroup of injuries to the deep portion of the MCL which is refractory to conservative treatment and causes persistant symptoms. They usually occur in high-level football players and may require surgical repair.

We describe a consecutive series of 17 men with a mean age of 29 years (18 to 44) who were all engaged in high levels of sport. Following a minor injury to the MCL there was persistent tenderness at the site of the proximal attachment of the deep MCL. It could be precipitated by rapid external rotation at the knee by clinical testing or during sport. The mean time from injury to presentation was 23.6 weeks (10 to 79) and none of the patients had responded to conservative treatment. The surgical finding was a failure of healing of a tear of the deep MCL at its femoral origin which could be repaired. After a period of postoperative protective bracing and subsequent rehabilitation the outcome was good. All the patients returned to their sports and remained asymptomatic at a mean of 48 weeks (28 to 60) post-operatively.

Recognition of this subgroup is important since the clinical features, the course of recovery and surgical requirement differ from those of most injuries to the MCL.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 4 | Pages 455 - 459
1 Apr 2008
Bollen S Pease F Ehrenraich A Church S Skinner J Williams A

The potential harm to the growth plate following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in skeletally-immature patients is well documented, but we are not aware of literature on the subject of the fate of the graft itself. We have reviewed five adolescent males who underwent reconstruction of the ligament with four-strand hamstring grafts using MR images taken at a mean of 34.6 months (18 to 58) from the time of operation. The changes in dimension of the graft were measured and compared with those taken at the original operation. No growth arrest was seen on radiological or clinical measurement of leg-length discrepancy, nor was there any soft-tissue contracture. All the patients regained their pre-injury level of activity, including elite-level sport in three. The patients grew by a mean of 17.3 cm (14 to 24). The diameter of the grafts did not change despite large increases in length (mean 42%; 33% to 57%). Most of the gain in length was on the femoral side. Large changes in the length of the grafts were seen.

There is a considerable increase in the size of the graft, so some neogenesis must occur; the graft must grow.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1225 - 1226
1 Sep 2005
Bottomley N Williams A Birch R Noorani A Lewis A Lavelle J

We reviewed the relationship between the pattern of damage to the posterolateral corner of the knee and the position of the common peroneal nerve in 54 consecutive patients with posterolateral corner disruption requiring surgery. We found that 16 of the 18 patients with biceps avulsions or avulsion-fracture of the fibular head had a displaced common peroneal nerve. The nerve was pulled anteriorly with the biceps tendon. None of the 34 proximal injuries resulted in an abnormal nerve position.

Whenever bone or soft-tissue avulsion from the fibular head is suspected, the surgeon should expect an abnormal position of the common peroneal nerve and appreciate the increased risk of iatrogenic damage.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 6 | Pages 925 - 931
1 Aug 2004
Pinskerova V Johal P Nakagawa S Sosna A Williams A Gedroyc W Freeman MAR

MRI studies of the knee were performed at intervals between full extension and 120° of flexion in six cadavers and also non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing in five volunteers. At each interval sagittal images were obtained through both compartments on which the position of the femoral condyle, identified by the centre of its posterior circular surface which is termed the flexion facet centre (FFC), and the point of closest approximation between the femoral and tibial subchondral plates, the contact point (CP), were identified relative to the posterior tibial cortex.

The movements of the CP and FFC were essentially the same in the three groups but in all three the medial differed from the lateral compartment and the movement of the FFC differed from that of the CP. Medially from 30° to 120° the FFC and CP coincided and did not move anteroposteriorly. From 30° to 0° the anteroposterior position of the FFC remained unchanged but the CP moved forwards by about 15 mm. Laterally, the FFC and the CP moved backwards together by about 15 mm from 20° to 120°. From 20° to full extension both the FFC and CP moved forwards, but the latter moved more than the former. The differences between the movements of the FFC and the CP could be explained by the sagittal shapes of the bones, especially anteriorly.

The term ‘roll-back’ can be applied to solid bodies, e.g. the condyles, but not to areas. The lateral femoral condyle does roll-back with flexion but the medial does not, i.e. the femur rotates externally around a medial centre. By contrast, both the medial and lateral contact points move back, roughly in parallel, from 0° to 120° but they cannot ‘roll’.

Femoral roll-back with flexion, usually imagined as backward rolling of both condyles, does not occur.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 3 | Pages 450 - 456
1 Apr 2004
Nakagawa S Johal P Pinskerova V Komatsu T Sosna A Williams A Freeman MAR

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was imaged by MRI throughout flexion in neutral tibial rotation in six cadaver knees, which were also dissected, and in 20 unloaded and 13 loaded living (squatting) knees. The appearance of the ligament was the same in all three groups. In extension the ligament is curved concave-forwards. It is straight, fully out-to-length and approaching vertical from 60° to 120°, and curves convex-forwards over the roof of the intercondylar notch in full flexion. Throughout flexion the length of the ligament does not change, but the separations of its attachments do.

We conclude that the PCL is not loaded in the unloaded cadaver knee and therefore, since its appearance in all three groups is the same, that it is also unloaded in the living knee during flexion. The posterior fibres may be an exception in hyperextension, probably being loaded either because of posterior femoral lift-off or because of the forward curvature of the PCL. These conclusions relate only to everyday life: none may be drawn with regard to more strenuous activities such as sport or in trauma.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1196 - 1198
1 Nov 2000
Hill PF Vedi V Williams A Iwaki H Pinskerova V Freeman MAR

In 13 unloaded living knees we confirmed the findings previously obtained in the unloaded cadaver knee during flexion and external rotation/internal rotation using MRI. In seven loaded living knees with the subjects squatting, the relative tibiofemoral movements were similar to those in the unloaded knee except that the medial femoral condyle tended to move about 4 mm forwards with flexion. Four of the seven loaded knees were studied during flexion in external and internal rotation. As predicted, flexion (squatting) with the tibia in external rotation suppressed the internal rotation of the tibia which had been observed during unloaded flexion.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 1 | Pages 37 - 41
1 Jan 1999
Vedi V Spouse E Williams A Tennant SJ Hunt DM Gedroyc WMW

We present the first study in vivo of meniscal movement in normal knees under load. Using an open MR scanner, allowing imaging in physiological positions in near to real-time, 16 young footballers were scanned moving from full extension to 90° flexion in the sagittal and coronal planes. Excursion of the meniscal horns, radial displacement and meniscal height were measured.

On weight-bearing, the anterior horn of the medial meniscus moves through a mean of 7.1 mm and the posterior horn through 3.9 mm, with 3.6 mm of mediolateral radial displacement. The height of the anterior horn increases by 2.6 mm and that of the posterior horn by 2.0 mm. The anterior horn of the lateral meniscus moves 9.5 mm and the posterior horn 5.6 mm, with 3.7 mm of radial displacement. The height of the anterior horn increases by 4.0 mm, and that of the posterior horn by 2.4 mm. In non-weight-bearing, the anterior horn of the medial meniscus moves 5.4 mm and the posterior horn 3.8 mm, with 3.3 mm of radial displacement. The anterior horn of the lateral meniscus moves 6.3 mm, and the posterior horn 4.0 mm, with 3.4 mm of radial displacement. The most significant differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing were the movement and vertical height of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 3 | Pages 365 - 367
1 May 1991
Williams A

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 3 | Pages 365 - 367
1 May 1991
Williams A

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 67-B, Issue 1 | Pages 14 - 20
1 Jan 1985
Puri R Smith C Malhotra D Williams A Owen R Harris F

The pathogenesis of slipped upper femoral epiphysis is unknown but the condition has been linked with various endocrine disorders. Nine patients with slipped epiphyses in association with primary juvenile hypothyroidism are presented. In all patients, slipping occurred or symptoms developed in the affected hip before the hypothyroidism was diagnosed. A generalised pathology was suggested by the absence of trauma (8 patients), by bilateral slipping (6 patients), and by obesity and short stature in all patients. All cases had delayed skeletal maturation and characteristic metaphysial changes were seen on their radiographs. The clinical diagnosis of juvenile hypothyroidism can be difficult but it merits consideration in patients who have a slipped upper femoral epiphysis in association with short stature, obesity, delay in skeletal maturity, or any one of these.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 60-B, Issue 4 | Pages 533 - 535
1 Nov 1978
Roper B Williams A King J

Adults with deformities of the lower limb due to spasticity may be considerably improved by operation, but thorough pre-operative assessment as an inpatient is essential in order to pinpoint the disability. The commonest deformity is equinovarus which often responds to simple operative procedures. The results of seventy-seven operative procedures in fifty patients are recorded. Correction once achieved is stable and the deformity does not recur.