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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 6 | Pages 432 - 441
5 Jun 2023
Kahlenberg CA Berube EE Xiang W Manzi JE Jahandar H Chalmers BP Cross MB Mayman DJ Wright TM Westrich GH Imhauser CW Sculco PK


Mid-level constraint designs for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are intended to reduce coronal plane laxity. Our aims were to compare kinematics and ligament forces of the Zimmer Biomet Persona posterior-stabilized (PS) and mid-level designs in the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes under loads simulating clinical exams of the knee in a cadaver model.


We performed TKA on eight cadaveric knees and loaded them using a robotic manipulator. We tested both PS and mid-level designs under loads simulating clinical exams via applied varus and valgus moments, internal-external (IE) rotation moments, and anteroposterior forces at 0°, 30°, and 90° of flexion. We measured the resulting tibiofemoral angulations and translations. We also quantified the forces carried by the medial and lateral collateral ligaments (MCL/LCL) via serial sectioning of these structures and use of the principle of superposition.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 Supple A | Pages 126 - 130
1 Jun 2021
Chalmers BP Goytizolo E Mishu MD Westrich GH


Manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) remains an effective intervention to address restricted range of motion (ROM) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and occurs in 2% to 3% of primary TKAs at our institution. Since there are few data on the outcomes of MUA with different anaesthetic methods, we sought to compare the outcomes of patients undergoing MUA with intravenous (IV) sedation and neuraxial anaesthesia.


We identified 548 MUAs after primary TKA (136 IV sedation, 412 neuraxial anaesthesia plus IV sedation) from March 2016 to July 2019. The mean age of this cohort was 62 years (35 to 88) with a mean body mass index of 31 kg/m2 (18 to 49). The mean time from primary TKA to MUA was 10.2 weeks (6.2 to 24.3). Pre-MUA ROM was similar between groups; overall mean pre-MUA extension was 4.2° (p = 0.452) and mean pre-MUA flexion was 77° (p = 0.372). We compared orthopaedic complications, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores, length of stay (LOS), and immediate and three-month follow-up knee ROM between these groups.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 Supple A | Pages 87 - 93
1 Jun 2021
Chalmers BP Elmasry SS Kahlenberg CA Mayman DJ Wright TM Westrich GH Imhauser CW Sculco PK Cross MB


Surgeons commonly resect additional distal femur during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to correct a flexion contracture, which leads to femoral joint line elevation. There is a paucity of data describing the effect of joint line elevation on mid-flexion stability and knee kinematics. Thus, the goal of this study was to quantify the effect of joint line elevation on mid-flexion laxity.


Six computational knee models with cadaver-specific capsular and collateral ligament properties were implanted with a posterior-stabilized (PS) TKA. A 10° flexion contracture was created in each model to simulate a capsular contracture. Distal femoral resections of + 2 mm and + 4 mm were then simulated for each knee. The knee models were then extended under a standard moment. Subsequently, varus and valgus moments of 10 Nm were applied as the knee was flexed from 0° to 90° at baseline and repeated after each of the two distal resections. Coronal laxity (the sum of varus and valgus angulation with respective maximum moments) was measured throughout flexion.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 6 Supple A | Pages 85 - 90
1 Jun 2020
Blevins JL Rao V Chiu Y Lyman S Westrich GH


The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between height, weight, and sex with implant size in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a multivariate linear regression model and a Bayesian model.


A retrospective review of an institutional registry was performed of primary TKAs performed between January 2005 and December 2016. Patient demographics including patient age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained from registry and medical record review. In total, 8,100 primary TKAs were included. The mean age was 67.3 years (SD 9.5) with a mean BMI of 30.4 kg/m2 (SD 6.3). The TKAs were randomly split into a training cohort (n = 4,022) and a testing cohort (n = 4,078). A multivariate linear regression model was created on the training cohort and then applied to the testing cohort . A Bayesian model was created based on the frequencies of implant sizes in the training cohort. The model was then applied to the testing cohort to determine the accuracy of the model at 1%, 5%, and 10% tolerance of inaccuracy.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 5 | Pages 629 - 635
1 May 2013
YaDeau JT Goytizolo EA Padgett DE Liu SS Mayman DJ Ranawat AS Rade MC Westrich GH

In a randomised controlled pragmatic trial we investigated whether local infiltration analgesia would result in earlier readiness for discharge from hospital after total knee replacement (TKR) than patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) plus femoral nerve block. A total of 45 patients with a mean age of 65 years (49 to 81) received a local infiltration with a peri-articular injection of bupivacaine, morphine and methylprednisolone, as well as adjuvant analgesics. In 45 PCEA+femoral nerve blockade patients with a mean age of 67 years (50 to 84), analgesia included a bupivacaine nerve block, bupivacaine/hydromorphone PCEA, and adjuvant analgesics. The mean time until ready for discharge was 3.2 days (1 to 14) in the local infiltration group and 3.2 days (1.8 to 7.0) in the PCEA+femoral nerve blockade group. The mean pain scores for patients receiving local infiltration were higher when walking (p = 0.0084), but there were no statistically significant differences at rest. The mean opioid consumption was higher in those receiving local infiltration.

The choice between these two analgesic pathways should not be made on the basis of time to discharge after surgery. Most secondary outcomes were similar, but PCEA+femoral nerve blockade patients had lower pain scores when walking and during continuous passive movement. If PCEA+femoral nerve blockade is not readily available, local infiltration provides similar length of stay and similar pain scores at rest following TKR.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:629–35.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 5 | Pages 676 - 679
1 Jul 2001
Bae H Westrich GH Sculco TP Salvati EA Reich LM

We have assessed the effect of the donation of autologous blood and the preoperative level of haemoglobin on the prevalence of postoperative thromboembolism in 2043 patients who had a total hip arthroplasty. The level of haemoglobin was determined seven to ten days before surgery and all patients had venography of the operated leg on the fifth postoperative day. The number of patients who had donated autologous blood (1037) was similar to that who had not (1006).

A significant decrease in the incidence of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) was noted in those who had donated blood preoperatively (9.0%) compared with those who had not (13.5%) (p = 0.003). For all patients, the lower the preoperative level of haemoglobin the less likely it was that a postoperative DVT would develop.

Of those who had donated blood, 0.3% developed a postoperative pulmonary embolism compared with 0.7% in those who had not, but this difference was not statistically significant. No significant difference was found in the requirements for transfusion between the two groups.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 3 | Pages 460 - 463
1 Apr 2001

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 6 | Pages 795 - 800
1 Aug 2000
Westrich GH Haas SB Mosca P Peterson M

We performed a meta-analysis of the English literature to assess the efficacy of four common regimes for thromboembolic prophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty: aspirin, warfarin, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and pneumatic compression. We reviewed 136 articles and abstracts published between January 1980 and December 1997. Papers not using routine venography and a lung scan or angiography to detect deep-venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE) respectively, were excluded. Of the 136 studies, 23 with 6001 patients were selected.

The incidence of DVT was 53% (1701/3214) in the aspirin group, 45% (541/1203) in the warfarin group, 29% (311/1075) in the LMWH group, and 17% (86/509) in the pneumatic compression device group. Intermittent pneumatic compression devices and LMWH were significantly better than warfarin (p < 0.0001) or aspirin (p < 0.0001) in preventing DVT.

The incidence of asymptomatic PE was 11.7% in the aspirin group (222/1901), 8.2% (101/1229) in the warfarin group and 6.3% (24/378) in the pneumatic compression group. No studies with LMWH used routine lung scans. Warfarin and pneumatic compression were significantly better than aspirin in preventing asymptomatic PE (p < 0.05).

The incidence of symptomatic PE was 1.3% (23/1800) in the aspirin group, 0.4% (2/559) in the warfarin group, 0.5% (2/416) in the LMWH group and 0% (0/177) in the pneumatic compression group. No statistically significant difference was noted between the above prophylatic regimes due to the very small incidence of symptomatic PE.

Prophylaxis for thromboembolic disease in TKA may have to include a combination of some of the above regimes to incorporate their advantages.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 6 | Pages 1057 - 1066
1 Nov 1998
Westrich GH Specht LM Sharrock NE Windsor RE Sculco TP Haas SB Trombley JF Peterson M

We performed a crossover study to evaluate the haemodynamic effect of active dorsal to plantar flexion and seven pneumatic compression devices in ten patients who had a total knee arthroplasty. Using the Acuson 128XP/10 duplex ultrasound unit with a 5MHz linear array probe, we assessed the augmentation of peak venous velocity and venous volume above and below the junction of the greater saphenous and common femoral veins in order to study both the deep and superficial venous systems.

The pneumatic compression devices evaluated included two foot pumps (A-V Impulse System and PlexiPulse Foot), a foot-calf pump (PlexiPulse Foot-Calf), a calf pump (VenaFlow System) and three calf-thigh pumps (SCD System, Flowtron DVT and Jobst Athrombic Pump). The devices differed in a number of ways, including the length and location of the sleeve and bladder, the frequency and duration of activation, the rate of pressure rise, and the maximum pressure achieved. A randomisation table was used to determine the order of the test conditions for each patient.

The enhancement of peak venous velocity occurred primarily in the deep venous system below the level of the saphenofemoral junction. The increases in peak venous velocity were as follows: active dorsal to plantar flexion 175%; foot pumps, A-V Impulse System 29% and PlexiPulse 65%; foot-calf pump, PlexiPulse, 221%; calf pump, VenaFlow, 302% and calf-thigh pumps, Flowtron DVT 87%, SCD System 116% and Jobst Athrombic Pump 263%.

All the devices augmented venous volume, the greatest effect being seen with those incorporating calf compression. The increases in ml/min were found in the deep venous system as follows: foot pumps, A-V Impulse System 9.6 and PlexiPulse Foot 16.7; foot-calf pump, PlexiPulse, 38.1; calf pump, VenaFlow, 26.2; calf-thigh pumps, Flowtron DVT 61.5, SCD System 34.7 and Jobst Athrombic Pump 82.3. Active dorsal to plantar flexion generated 8.5 ml for a single calf contraction.