header advert
Results 1 - 2 of 2
Results per page:
The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1266 - 1272
1 Nov 2022
Farrow L Brasnic L Martin C Ward K Adam K Hall AJ Clement ND MacLullich AMJ


The aim of this study was to examine perioperative blood transfusion practice, and associations with clinical outcomes, in a national cohort of hip fracture patients.


A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using linked data from the Scottish Hip Fracture Audit and the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service between May 2016 and December 2020. All patients aged ≥ 50 years admitted to a Scottish hospital with a hip fracture were included. Assessment of the factors independently associated with red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) during admission was performed, alongside determination of the association between RBCT and hip fracture outcomes.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1369 - 1374
1 Oct 2007
Nelson D Zenios M Ward K Ramachandran M Little DG

The deformity index is a new radiological measurement of the degree of deformity of the femoral head in unilateral Perthes’ disease. Its values represent a continuous outcome measure of deformity incorporating changes in femoral epiphyseal height and width compared with the unaffected side. The sphericity of the femoral head in 30 radiographs (ten normal and 20 from patients with Perthes’ disease) were rated blindly as normal, mild, moderate or severe by three observers. Further blinded measurements of the deformity index were made on two further occasions with intervals of one month.

There was good agreement between the deformity index score and the subjective grading of deformity. Intra- and interobserver agreement for the deformity index was high. The intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficient for each observer was 0.98, 0.99 and 0.97, respectively, while the interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 for the first and 0.97 for the second set of calculations.

We also reviewed retrospectively 96 radiographs of children with Perthes’ disease, who were part of a multicentre trial which followed them to skeletal maturity. We found that the deformity index at two years correlated well with the Stulberg grading at skeletal maturity. A deformity index value above 0.3 was associated with the development of an aspherical femoral head. Using a deformity index value of 0.3 to divide groups for risk gives a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 81% for predicting a Stulberg grade of III or IV.

We conclude that the deformity index at two years is a valid and reliable radiological outcome measure in unilateral Perthes’ disease.