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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 7 | Pages 426 - 438
20 Jul 2022
Luo P Wang P Xu J Hou W Xu P Xu K Liu L

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that involves T and B cells and their reciprocal immune interactions with proinflammatory cytokines. T cells, an essential part of the immune system, play an important role in RA. T helper 1 (Th1) cells induce interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-2, which are proinflammatory cytokines, leading to cartilage destruction and bone erosion. Th2 cells primarily secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which exert anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenic effects in inflammatory arthritis models. IL-22 secreted by Th17 cells promotes the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts through induction of the chemokine C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). T follicular helper (Tfh) cells produce IL-21, which is key for B cell stimulation by the C-X-C chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) and coexpression with programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and/or inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS). PD-1 inhibits T cell proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, there are many immunomodulatory agents that promote or inhibit the immunomodulatory role of T helper cells in RA to alleviate disease progression. These findings help to elucidate the aetiology and treatment of RA and point us toward the next steps.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2022;11(7):426–438.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 5 | Pages 292 - 300
13 May 2022
He C Chen C Jiang X Li H Zhu L Wang P Xiao T

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease resulting from progressive joint destruction caused by many factors. Its pathogenesis is complex and has not been elucidated to date. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a series of irreversible and stable macromolecular complexes formed by reducing sugar with protein, lipid, and nucleic acid through a non-enzymatic glycosylation reaction (Maillard reaction). They are an important indicator of the degree of ageing. Currently, it is considered that AGEs accumulation in vivo is a molecular basis of age-induced OA, and AGEs production and accumulation in vivo is one of the important reasons for the induction and acceleration of the pathological changes of OA. In recent years, it has been found that AGEs are involved in a variety of pathological processes of OA, including extracellular matrix degradation, chondrocyte apoptosis, and autophagy. Clearly, AGEs play an important role in regulating the expression of OA-related genes and maintaining the chondrocyte phenotype and the stability of the intra-articular environment. This article reviews the latest research results of AGEs in a variety of pathological processes of OA, to provide a new direction for the study of OA pathogenesis and a new target for prevention and treatment.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2022;11(5):292–300.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 4 | Pages 253 - 258
1 Apr 2017
Hsu C Lin C Jou I Wang P Lee J


Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis, affecting approximately 15% of the human population. Recently, increased concentration of nitric oxide in serum and synovial fluid in patients with OA has been observed. However, the exact role of nitric oxide in the initiation of OA has not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide in innate immune regulation during OA initiation in rats.


Rat OA was induced by performing meniscectomy surgery while cartilage samples were collected 0, 7, and 14 days after surgery. Cartilage cytokine levels were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while other proteins were assessed by using Western blot