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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 12 | Pages 830 - 839
15 Dec 2021
Robertson G Wallace R Simpson AHRW Dawson SP


Assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a well-established clinical technique, but it is not available in the acute trauma setting. Thus, it cannot provide a preoperative estimation of BMD to help guide the technique of fracture fixation. Alternative methods that have been suggested for assessing BMD include: 1) cortical measures, such as cortical ratios and combined cortical scores; and 2) aluminium grading systems from preoperative digital radiographs. However, limited research has been performed in this area to validate the different methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the evaluation of BMD from digital radiographs by comparing various methods against DXA scanning.


A total of 54 patients with distal radial fractures were included in the study. Each underwent posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs of the injured wrist with an aluminium step wedge. Overall 27 patients underwent routine DXA scanning of the hip and lumbar spine, with 13 undergoing additional DXA scanning of the uninjured forearm. Analysis of radiographs was performed on ImageJ and Matlab with calculations of cortical measures, cortical indices, combined cortical scores, and aluminium equivalent grading.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 3 | Pages 488 - 491
1 May 1996
Grey AC Wallace R Crone M

We report a 45-year follow-up of a patient with Engelmann’s disease previously described in 1950, showing progression of the disease with unique involvement of the femoral capital epiphyses. The case is compared with others to add some information about the later stages of a disease which is not fully understood

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 75-B, Issue 5 | Pages 769 - 771
1 Sep 1993
Milligan K Macafee A Fogarty D Wallace R Ramsey P

A randomised double-blind study was carried out on 60 patients undergoing elective lumbar discectomy. Patients in the study group (n = 30) received an injection of 10 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine into the wound; the control group (n = 30) received none. Postoperative pain was measured by a visual analogue pain scale and by the amount of morphine administered by a patient-controlled analgesia system. Patients in the study group had lower pain scores, used less morphine, waited longer until their first demand for analgesia and reported their postoperative pain to be less severe.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 70-B, Issue 2 | Pages 255 - 260
1 Mar 1988
Osterberg P Wallace R Adams D Crone R Dickson G Kanis J Mollan R Nevin N Sloan J Toner P

We report 40 cases in one family of an autosomal dominant bone dysplasia, which, though similar in some aspects to Paget's disease, seems unique in some features and in its natural history. The disease shows both general and focal skeletal changes, the latter being mainly in the limbs with an onset from the second decade. Progressive osteoclastic resorption is accompanied by medullary expansion which leads to pain, severe deformity and a tendency to pathological fracture. The serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxyproline are variably elevated, while other biochemical indices are normal. Most patients had an associated deafness of early onset and loss of dentition. No previous description of this disease has been found in the literature.