header advert
Results 1 - 11 of 11
Results per page:
The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1675 - 1681
1 Dec 2020
Uzoigwe CE O'Leary L Nduka J Sharma D Melling D Simmons D Barton S


Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) are common surgical complications. In the UK, the Best Practice Tariff incentivizes the screening of delirium in patients with hip fracture. Further, a National Hip Fracture Database (NHFD) performance indicator is the reduction in the incidence of POD. To aid in its recognition, we sought to determine factors associated with POD and POCD in patients with hip fractures.


We interrogated the NHFD data on patients presenting with hip fractures to our institution from 2016 to 2018. POD was determined using the 4AT score, as recommended by the NHFD and UK Department of Health. POCD was defined as a decline in Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) of two or greater. Using logistic regression, we adjusted for covariates to identify factors associated with POD and POCD.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 2 | Pages 160 - 165
1 Feb 2016
Farrier AJ C. Sanchez Franco L Shoaib A Gulati V Johnson N Uzoigwe CE Choudhury MZ

The ageing population and an increase in both the incidence and prevalence of cancer pose a healthcare challenge, some of which is borne by the orthopaedic community in the form of osteoporotic fractures and metastatic bone disease. In recent years there has been an increasing understanding of the pathways involved in bone metabolism relevant to osteoporosis and metastases in bone. Newer therapies may aid the management of these problems. One group of drugs, the antibody mediated anti-resorptive therapies (AMARTs) use antibodies to block bone resorption pathways. This review seeks to present a synopsis of the guidelines, pharmacology and potential pathophysiology of AMARTs and other new anti-resorptive drugs.

We evaluate the literature relating to AMARTs and new anti-resorptives with special attention on those approved for use in clinical practice.

Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand. It is the first AMART approved by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and the US Food and Drug Administration. Other novel anti-resorptives awaiting approval for clinical use include Odanacatib.

Denosumab is indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of the complications of bone metastases. Recent evidence suggests, however, that denosumab may have an adverse event profile similar to bisphosphonates, including atypical femoral fractures. It is, therefore, essential that orthopaedic surgeons are conversant with these medications and their safe usage.

Take home message: Denosumab has important orthopaedic indications and has been shown to significantly reduce patient morbidity in osteoporosis and metastatic bone disease.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:160–5.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 4 | Pages 434 - 441
1 Apr 2015
Shabani F Farrier AJ Krishnaiyan R Hunt C Uzoigwe CE Venkatesan M

Drug therapy forms an integral part of the management of many orthopaedic conditions. However, many medicines can produce serious adverse reactions if prescribed inappropriately, either alone or in combination with other drugs. Often these hazards are not appreciated. In response to this, the European Union recently issued legislation regarding safety measures which member states must adopt to minimise the risk of errors of medication.

In March 2014 the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency and NHS England released a Patient Safety Alert initiative focussed on errors of medication. There have been similar initiatives in the United States under the auspices of The National Coordinating Council for Medication Error and The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. These initiatives have highlighted the importance of informing and educating clinicians.

Here, we discuss common drug interactions and contra-indications in orthopaedic practice. This is germane to safe and effective clinical care.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:434–41.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1185 - 1191
1 Sep 2014
Middleton RG Uzoigwe CE Young PS Smith R Gosal HS Holt G

We aimed to determine whether cemented hemiarthroplasty is associated with a higher post-operative mortality and rate of re-operation when compared with uncemented hemiarthroplasty. Data on 19 669 patients, who were treated with a hemiarthroplasty following a fracture of the hip in a nine-year period from 2002 to 2011, were extracted from NHS Scotland’s acute admission database (Scottish Morbidity Record, SMR01). We investigated the rate of mortality at day 0, 1, 7, 30, 120 and one-year post-operatively using 12 case-mix variables to determine the independent effect of the method of fixation. At day 0, those with a cemented hemiarthroplasty had a higher rate of mortality (p < 0.001) compared with those with an uncemented hemiarthroplasty, equivalent to one extra death per 424 procedures. By day one this had become one extra death per 338 procedures. Increasing age and the five-year co-morbidity score were noted as independent risk factors. By day seven, the cumulative rate of mortality was less for cemented hemiarthroplasty though this did not reach significance until day 120. The rate of re-operation was significantly higher for uncemented hemiarthroplasty. Despite adjusting for 12 confounding variables, these only accounted for 15% of the observed variability.

The debate about the choice of the method of fixation for a hemiarthroplasty with respect to the rate of mortality or the risk of re-operation may be largely superfluous. Our results suggest that uncemented hemiarthroplasties may have a role to play in elderly patients with significant co-morbid disease.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1185–91.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 3 | Pages 373 - 378
1 Mar 2014
Thomas CJ Smith RP Uzoigwe CE Braybrooke JR

We retrospectively reviewed 2989 consecutive patients with a mean age of 81 (21 to 105) and a female to male ratio of 5:2 who were admitted to our hip fracture unit between July 2009 and February 2013. We compared weekday and weekend admission and weekday and weekend surgery 30-day mortality rates for hip fractures treated both surgically and conservatively. After adjusting for confounders, weekend admission was independently and significantly associated with a rise in 30-day mortality (odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.9; p = 0.039) for patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. There was no increase in mortality associated with weekend surgery (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.7; p = 0.39). All hip fracture patients, whether managed surgically or conservatively, were more likely to die as an inpatient when admitted at the weekend (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.80; p = 0.032), despite our unit having a comparatively low overall inpatient mortality (8.7%). Hip fracture patients admitted over the weekend appear to have a greater risk of death despite having a consultant-led service.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:373–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 1 | Pages 88 - 93
1 Jan 2014
Venkatesan M Northover JR Wild JB Johnson N Lee K Uzoigwe CE Braybrooke JR

Fractures of the odontoid peg are common spinal injuries in the elderly. This study compares the survivorship of a cohort of elderly patients with an isolated fracture of the odontoid peg versus that of patients who have sustained a fracture of the hip or wrist. A six-year retrospective analysis was performed on all patients aged > 65 years who were admitted to our spinal unit with an isolated fracture of the odontoid peg. A Kaplan–Meier table was used to analyse survivorship from the date of fracture, which was compared with the survivorship of similar age-matched cohorts of 702 consecutive patients with a fracture of the hip and 221 consecutive patients with a fracture of the wrist.

A total of 32 patients with an isolated odontoid fracture were identified. The rate of mortality was 37.5% (n = 12) at one year. The period of greatest mortality was within the first 12 weeks. Time made a lesser contribution from then to one year, and there was no impact of time on the rate of mortality thereafter. The rate of mortality at one year was 41.2% for male patients (7 of 17) compared with 33.3% for females (5 of 15).

The rate of mortality at one year was 32% (225 of 702) for patients with a fracture of the hip and 4% (9 of 221) for those with a fracture of the wrist. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of mortality following a hip fracture and an odontoid peg fracture (p = 0.95). However, the survivorship of the wrist fracture group was much better than that of the odontoid peg fracture group (p < 0.001). Thus, a fracture of the odontoid peg in the elderly is not a benign injury and is associated with a high rate of mortality, especially in the first three months after the injury.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:88–93.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1551 - 1556
1 Nov 2012
Venkatesan M Uzoigwe CE Perianayagam G Braybrooke JR Newey ML

No previous studies have examined the physical characteristics of patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES). We compared the anthropometric features of patients who developed CES after a disc prolapse with those who did not but who had symptoms that required elective surgery. We recorded the age, gender, height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of 92 consecutive patients who underwent elective lumbar discectomy and 40 consecutive patients who underwent discectomy for CES. On univariate analysis, the mean BMI of the elective discectomy cohort (26.5 kg/m2 (16.6 to 41.7) was very similar to that of the age-matched national mean (27.6 kg/m2, p = 1.0). However, the mean BMI of the CES cohort (31.1 kg/m2 (21.0 to 54.9)) was significantly higher than both that of the elective group (p < 0.001) and the age-matched national mean (p < 0.001). A similar pattern was seen with the weight of the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for age, gender, height, weight and BMI. Increasing BMI and weight were strongly associated with an increased risk of CES (odds ratio (OR) 1.17, p < 0.001; and OR 1.06, p <  0.001, respectively). However, increasing height was linked with a reduced risk of CES (OR 0.9, p < 0.01). The odds of developing CES were 3.7 times higher (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 7.8, p = 0.016) in the overweight and obese (as defined by the World Health Organization: BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) than in those of ideal weight. Those with very large discs (obstructing > 75% of the spinal canal) had a larger BMI than those with small discs (obstructing < 25% of the canal; p < 0.01). We therefore conclude that increasing BMI is associated with CES.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1313 - 1320
1 Oct 2012
Middleton RG Shabani F Uzoigwe CE AS Moqsith M Venkatesan M

Osteoporosis is common and the health and financial cost of fragility fractures is considerable. The burden of cardiovascular disease has been reduced dramatically by identifying and targeting those most at risk. A similar approach is potentially possible in the context of fragility fractures. The World Health Organization created and endorsed the use of FRAX, a fracture risk assessment tool, which uses selected risk factors to calculate a quantitative, patient-specific, ten-year risk of sustaining a fragility fracture. Treatment can thus be based on this as well as on measured bone mineral density. It may also be used to determine at-risk individuals, who should undergo bone densitometry. FRAX has been incorporated into the national osteoporosis guidelines of countries in the Americas, Europe, the Far East and Australasia. The United Kingdom National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence also advocates its use in their guidance on the assessment of the risk of fragility fracture, and it may become an important tool to combat the health challenges posed by fragility fractures.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 5 | Pages 603 - 608
1 May 2012
Vasukutty NL Middleton RG Matthews EC Young PS Uzoigwe CE Minhas THA

We present our experience with a double-mobility acetabular component in 155 consecutive revision total hip replacements in 149 patients undertaken between 2005 and 2009, with particular emphasis on the incidence of further dislocation. The mean age of the patients was 77 years (42 to 89) with 59 males and 90 females. In all, five patients died and seven were lost to follow-up. Indications for revision were aseptic loosening in 113 hips, recurrent instability in 29, peri-prosthetic fracture in 11 and sepsis in two. The mean follow-up was 42 months (18 to 68). Three hips (2%) in three patients dislocated within six weeks of surgery; one of these dislocated again after one year. All three were managed successfully with closed reduction. Two of the three dislocations occurred in patients who had undergone revision for recurrent dislocation. All three were found at revision to have abductor deficiency. There were no dislocations in those revised for either aseptic loosening or sepsis.

These results demonstrate a good mid-term outcome for this component. In the 29 patients revised for instability, only two had a further dislocation, both of which were managed by closed reduction.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 1 | Pages 23 - 27
1 Jan 2012
Uzoigwe CE Middleton RG

Radiological imaging is necessary in a wide variety of trauma and elective orthopaedic operations. The evolving orthopaedic workforce includes an increasing number of pregnant workers. Current legislation in the United Kingdom, Europe and United States allows them to choose their degree of participation, if any, with fluoroscopic procedures. For those who wish to engage in radiation-prone procedures, specific regulations apply to limit the radiation dose to the pregnant worker and unborn child.

This paper considers those aspects of radiation protection, the potential effects of exposure to radiation in pregnancy and the dose of radiation from common orthopaedic procedures, which are important for safe clinical practice.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1103 - 1104
1 Aug 2009
Uzoigwe CE Shabani F Chami G El-Tayeb M

We describe a case of type-I Arnold-Chiari malformation in a 27-year-old woman who presented on two separate occasions with an apparent whiplash injury. She developed debilitating symptoms after two apparently low velocity vehicle collisions. MRI revealed a type-I Arnold-Chiari malformation. She was referred for consideration of neurosurgical decompression. Type-I Arnold-Chiari malformation is the downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. It is usually asymptomatic but may present after apparently insignificant trauma with a wide range of possible symptoms. The protean nature of its presentation and the similarity of the symptoms to those of a whiplash injury mean that it is easily overlooked. It is, however, important that it is detected early.