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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 52-B, Issue 1 | Pages 160 - 167
1 Feb 1970
Mulfinger GL Trueta J

1. The intraosseous and extraosseous circulation of the talus was examined in thirty necropsy specimens.

2. The blood supply to the talus is quite diffuse and arises from the three major arteries of the lower leg.

3. The common patterns of circulation, as well as the variations, have been documented.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 51-B, Issue 2 | Pages 372 - 379
1 May 1969
Ezra-Cohn HE Bullough PG Trueta J

1. A method is described for the in vivo and in vitro study of osteogenesis by implanting a modified transparent chamber in half lop-eared rabbits (as originated by Sandison 1928). This method allows the daily observation and photography of the developing bone and the study of its intimate connection with the vascularity of the area.

2. The osteogenetic potential of a variety of substances can also be investigated by this method. The tissue in the chamber can easily be prepared for its final examination by optical and electron microscopy and by other laboratory techniques.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 47-B, Issue 2 | Pages 319 - 329
1 May 1965
Deleu J Trueta J

In this study the direct relationship between the type of bone implant used, the vascular reaction caused to the host and the revascularisation of the implant has been studied. It was found that the best graft was that which was the most rapidly and permanently vascularised. Not only was the biological affinity between the graft and the bed important, but the structural facilities offered by the implant for the "penetration" by the host vessels were also of paramount importance. Thus small, fresh, cancellous bone grafts offered the best chance of rapid incorporation provided they were not crushed to the point of making vascular progress difficult. The findings from this investigation so strongly suggest that the rapid revascularisation of the bone grafts was because of an end-to-end anastomosis of the vessels of the host with those in the implant that it seems justified to consider that the best bone graft is that which is richest in vessels. Apart from a recent short paper by Graf (1960), we have not found this assertion before. It is this which seems to make the fresh, autogenous, cancellous implant so superior to all others.

We believe that any new material for bone grafts should be tested by the technique described here. The material which one day may replace fresh, autogenous, cancellous implants will have to show the same readiness to vascular penetration, vascular osteogenesis and vascular permanency that at present is exhibited only by the cancellous autograft.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 45-B, Issue 3 | Pages 572 - 581
1 Aug 1963
Trueta J Buhr AJ

1. It has been shown that in experimental rickets the well known changes in the epiphysial cartilage which so seriously affect growth are accompanied by severe interference with the progress of the metaphysial vessels into the growth cartilage.

2. Further evidence has been found that, by the repeated increase in their number, the cartilage cells occupying the more distal part of the proliferative segment become more and more affected by their remoteness from the epiphysial vessels, which supply the transudates to these cells. At a given distance these cells are affected and change, becoming hypertrophic, with increasingly large vacuolae, and are rich in glycogen and alkaline phosphatase.

3. The hypertrophic cells alter the nature of the intercellular substance they deposit and this becomes calcifiable. Provided that the metaphysial vessels are situated at an appropriate distance–about three cell capsules away–and that the blood has its necessary components, calcification occurs.

4. Calcification produces the advancing, rigid multitubular structure within which the progressing metaphysial vessels are protected.

5. The interruption of calcification by the withdrawal of fat-soluble vitamins breaks down the whole mechanism of growth and stops the vessels growing into their proper position. The administration of the required vitamins re-establishes the normal sequence of events and allows the vessels to play their decisive role in osteogenesis.

6. Any mechanism which causes the interruption of the vascular progression, whether from metaphysial ischaemia (Trueta and Amato 1960), from severe pressure (Trueta and Trias 1961) or from lack of calcification by withdrawing the fat-soluble vitamins, equally interrupts growth.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 45-B, Issue 2 | Pages 402 - 418
1 May 1963
Trueta J

We have attempted to summarise in a short space investigations that have occupied several years, and we realise that whatever the merits of such an effort the results can only be modest. Many important aspects of the osteogenetic process still remain a mystery and thus are subjected to theory and controversy. Such is the case with this constant attendant at osteogenesis which is alkaline phosphatase. But of one thing we are certain, namely that bone is an organised "soft" tissue of which only part has been made rigid by the deposit of calcium salts. The organiser is the osteogenetic vessel from which springs the syncytial frame of cells and their connections on which the bone architecture is established. Endothelial cell, intermediate cell, osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast; these constitute the normal sequence of cellular phylogeny in the constant elaboration and removal of the bone substance. The initial cells on which the whole process rests are those of the capillary-sinusoid vessel which is responsible for providing the transudates on which the life and health of the whole syncytium depends.

If our findings were confirmed, a better understanding of the nature and characteristics of primitive malignant bone tumours would be possible. Each type of tumour from endothelioma to malignant osteoclastoma, including reticulum-cell sarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma, would be initiated by a different cell of the syncytium, but in its monstrous deviation from the normal would still preserve most of the characteristics of its healthy ancestor. Thus the endothelioma causes bone expansion, bone reaction and even bone necrosis, but not proper bone formation, whereas the osteogenic sarcoma or osteoblastoma forms bone; and with the same fidelity to their origin osteoclasts are seen in the malignant osteolytic tumour.

Over thirty years ago the late Sir Arthur Keith (1927) expressed his suspicion that the cells which assume a bone-forming role are derived from the endothelium of the capillary system. We hope we have contributed to show that his suspicion was right.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 43-B, Issue 4 | Pages 800 - 813
1 Nov 1961
Trueta J Trias A

From this work it may be concluded that persistent compression affects the growth plate by interference with the blood flow on one or both sides of the growth cartilage.

Despite exertion of the same pressure upon both sides of the growth plate, only the metaphysial side was readily affected in the early stages, for, as long as no damage was caused to the epiphysial side of the growth cartilage, the lesions were fully reversible.

Interference with growth was directly proportionate to the damage caused by compression to the epiphysial side of the growth plate and, in general, to the duration of compression.

The first signs of interference with the metaphysial side of the plate were the lack of vascular progression and concomitant retardation of calcification.

When severe degeneration was not present the growth cartilage recovered within four days.

The matrix was ready for calcification all the time, as shown by the extremely rapid calcification occurring soon after the compression had ceased and the vessels were able to reach their proper place.

It seems justified to believe that the first hypertrophic cell not to be calcified after removal of the clamp is the one around which the matrix has not yet changed sufficiently to have an affinity for the apatite crystals. As in moderate compression, the division of the proliferative cells continues and it seems it must be the age, or even more likely the distance from the transudate coming from the epiphysial side of the growth cartilage that conditions the maturity of the cell, which prepares the field for calcification and thus initiates the osteogenic process.

Views similar to this have been advanced by Ham (1957) and his school.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 43-B, Issue 1 | Pages 211 - 211
1 Feb 1961
Trueta J

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 42-B, Issue 3 | Pages 571 - 587
1 Aug 1960
Trueta J Amato VP

In this work the role of the blood vessels surrounding the epiphysial growth plate has been studied. The nutritional dependence of the proliferative cells on the epiphysial vessels has been established whereas the metaphysial vessels were seen to take part in calcification and ossification at the metaphysis.

As it does not seem likely that the blood circulating in the two systems of vessels had a different constitution, particularly in hormones and vitamins, it seems permissible to assume that it is the characteristics, particularly in shape and number, of such vessels that make growth the orderly process it is, with the repeated birth of a cell at the top of a column and burial at the bottom end. But, despite this undeniable role of the vessels, growth depends on the ability of the cartilage cell to form a matrix which, in due course, will be avid for apatite crystals.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 42-B, Issue 2 | Pages 367 - 376
1 May 1960
Trueta J Little K

Throughout this work data have been gathered favouring the concept that the metaphysial vascular arrangement is primarily related to the process of enchondral ossification, and has very limited, if any, responsibility for the nourishment of the growth cartilage.

The present evidence favours the suggestion that when the chondrocytes of the column have become too far separated from their source of nourishment (the epiphysial vessels) they and their surrounding matrix suffer changes which prepare them for the process of calcification. At least calcium and phosphate ions will be required for this to take place. The proximity of the vessel and also the fact that it is not isolated by a membrane at its very end suggests a profuse interchange of fluids with the surrounding area.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 42-B, Issue 1 | Pages 97 - 109
1 Feb 1960
Trueta J Morgan JD