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Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 9, Issue 5 | Pages 4 - 9
1 Oct 2020
Matthews E Waterson HB Phillips JR Toms AD

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1176 - 1182
14 Sep 2020
Mathews JA Kalson NS Tarrant PM Toms AD


The James Lind Alliance aims to bring patients, carers, and clinicians together to identify uncertainties regarding care. A Priority Setting Partnership was established by the British Association for Surgery of the Knee in conjunction with the James Lind Alliance to identify research priorities related to the assessment, management, and rehabilitation of patients with persistent symptoms after knee arthroplasty.


The project was conducted using the James Lind Alliance protocol. A steering group was convened including patients, surgeons, anaesthetists, nurses, physiotherapists, and researchers. Partner organizations were recruited. A survey was conducted on a national scale through which patients, carers, and healthcare professionals submitted key unanswered questions relating to problematic knee arthroplasties. These were analyzed, aggregated, and synthesized into summary questions and the relevant evidence was checked. After confirming that these were not answered in the current literature, 32 questions were taken forward to an interim prioritization survey. Data from this survey informed a shortlist taken to a final consensus meeting.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 8, Issue 3 | Pages 3 - 7
1 Jun 2019
Patel NG Waterson HB Phillips JRA Toms AD

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 12 | Pages 639 - 649
1 Dec 2018
MacLeod AR Serrancoli G Fregly BJ Toms AD Gill HS


Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an established surgical procedure for the treatment of early-stage knee arthritis. Other than infection, the majority of complications are related to mechanical factors – in particular, stimulation of healing at the osteotomy site. This study used finite element (FE) analysis to investigate the effect of plate design and bridging span on interfragmentary movement (IFM) and the influence of fracture healing on plate stress and potential failure.

Materials and Methods

A 10° opening wedge HTO was created in a composite tibia. Imaging and strain gauge data were used to create and validate FE models. Models of an intact tibia and a tibia implanted with a custom HTO plate using two different bridging spans were validated against experimental data. Physiological muscle forces and different stages of osteotomy gap healing simulating up to six weeks postoperatively were then incorporated. Predictions of plate stress and IFM for the custom plate were compared against predictions for an industry standard plate (TomoFix).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1360 - 1368
1 Oct 2016
Waterson HB Clement ND Eyres KS Mandalia VI Toms AD


Our aim was to compare kinematic with mechanical alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Patients and Methods

We performed a prospective blinded randomised controlled trial to compare the functional outcome of patients undergoing TKA in mechanical alignment (MA) with those in kinematic alignment (KA). A total of 71 patients undergoing TKA were randomised to either kinematic (n = 36) or mechanical alignment (n = 35). Pre- and post-operative hip-knee-ankle radiographs were analysed. The knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS), American Knee Society Score, Short Form-36, Euro-Qol (EQ-5D), range of movement (ROM), two minute walk, and timed up and go tests were assessed pre-operatively and at six weeks, three and six months and one year post-operatively.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 4, Issue 6 | Pages 2 - 5
1 Dec 2015
Dodd L Sharpe I Mandalia VI Toms AD Phillips JRA

The global economy has been facing a financial crisis. Healthcare costs are spiraling, and there is a projected £30 billion health funding gap by 2020 in the UK.1 This has prompted a drive for efficiency in healthcare provision in the UK, and in 2012, the Health and Social Care Act was introduced, heralding a fundamental change to the structure of the National Health Service, especially in the way that healthcare is funded in England.2

What is happening in the UK is a reflection of a global problem. Rationing of healthcare is a topic of much discussion; as unless spending is capped, providing healthcare will become unsustainable. Who decides how money is spent, and which services should be rationed?

In this article we aim to discuss the impact that rationing may have on orthopaedic surgery, and we will discuss our own experiences of attempts to ration local services.3 We also seek to inform and educate the general orthopaedic community on this topic.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1076 - 1081
1 Aug 2015
Patel A Pavlou G Mújica-Mota RE Toms AD

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are recognised and proven interventions for patients with advanced arthritis. Studies to date have demonstrated a steady increase in the requirement for primary and revision procedures. Projected estimates made for the United States show that by 2030 the demand for primary TKA will grow by 673% and for revision TKA by 601% from the level in 2005. For THA the projected estimates are 174% and 137% for primary and revision surgery, respectively. The purpose of this study was to see if those predictions were similar for England and Wales using data from the National Joint Registry and the Office of National Statistics.

Analysis of data for England and Wales suggest that by 2030, the volume of primary and revision TKAs will have increased by 117% and 332%, respectively between 2012 and 2030. The data for the United States translates to a 306% cumulative rate of increase between 2012 and 2030 for revision surgery, which is similar to our predictions for England and Wales.

The predictions from the United States for primary TKA were similar to our upper limit projections. For THA, we predicted an increase of 134% and 31% for primary and revision hip surgery, respectively.

Our model has limitations, however, it highlights the economic burden of arthroplasty in the future in England and Wales as a real and unaddressed problem. This will have significant implications for the provision of health care and the management of orthopaedic services in the future.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1076–1081.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1227 - 1233
1 Sep 2014
Phillips JRA Hopwood B Arthur C Stroud R Toms AD

A small proportion of patients have persistent pain after total knee replacement (TKR). The primary aim of this study was to record the prevalence of pain after TKR at specific intervals post-operatively and to ascertain the impact of neuropathic pain. The secondary aim was to establish any predictive factors that could be used to identify patients who were likely to have high levels of pain or neuropathic pain after TKR.

A total of 96 patients were included in the study. Their mean age was 71 years (48 to 89); 54 (56%) were female. The mean follow-up was 46 months (39 to 51). Pre-operative demographic details were recorded including a Visual Analogue Score (VAS) for pain, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score as well as the painDETECT score for neuropathic pain. Functional outcome was assessed using the Oxford Knee score.

The mean pre-operative VAS was 5.8 (1 to 10); and it improved significantly at all time periods post-operatively (p < 0.001): (from 4.5 at day three to five (1 to 10), 3.2 at six weeks (0 to 9), 2.4 at three months (0 to 7), 2.0 at six months (0 to 9), 1.7 at nine months (0 to 9), 1.5 at one year (0 to 8) and 2.0 at mean 46 months (0 to 10)). There was a high correlation (r > 0.7; p < 0.001) between the mean VAS scores for pain and the mean painDETECT scores at three months, one year and three years post-operatively. There was no correlation between the pre-operative scores and any post-operative scores at any time point.

We report the prevalence of pain and neuropathic pain at various intervals up to three years after TKR. Neuropathic pain is an underestimated problem in patients with pain after TKR. It peaks at between six weeks and three-months post-operatively. However, from these data we were unable to predict which patients are most likely to be affected.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1227–33.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 3, Issue 3 | Pages 2 - 8
1 Jun 2014
Phillips JRA Waterson HB Searle DJ Mandalia VI Toms AD

This is the second of a series of reviews of registries. This review looks specifically at worldwide registry data that have been collected on knee arthroplasty, what we have learned from their reports, and what the limitations are as to what we currently know.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 3, Issue 3 | Pages 9 - 13
1 Jun 2014
Waterson HB Philips JRA Mandalia VI Toms AD

Mechanical alignment has been a fundamental tenet of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) since modern knee replacement surgery was developed in the 1970s. The objective of mechanical alignment was to infer the greatest biomechanical advantage to the implant to prevent early loosening and failure. Over the last 40 years a great deal of innovation in TKA technology has been focusing on how to more accurately achieve mechanical alignment. Recently the concept of mechanical alignment has been challenged, and other alignment philosophies are being explored with the intention of trying to improve patient outcomes following TKA.

This article examines the evolution of the mechanical alignment concept and whether there are any viable alternatives.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 2 | Pages 271 - 277
1 Feb 2009
Toms AD Barker RL McClelland D Chua L Spencer-Jones R Kuiper J

The treatment of bony defects of the tibia at the time of revision total knee replacement is controversial. The place of compacted morsellised bone graft is becoming established, particularly in contained defects. It has previously been shown that the initial stability of impaction-grafted trays in the contained defects is equivalent to that of an uncemented primary knee replacement. However, there is little biomechanical evidence on which to base a decision in the treatment of uncontained defects. We undertook a laboratory-based biomechanical study comparing three methods of graft containment in segmental medial tibial defects and compared them with the use of a modular metal augment to bypass the defect.

Using resin models of the proximal tibia with medial defects representing either 46% or 65% of the medial cortical rim, repair of the defect was accomplished using mesh, cement or a novel bag technique, after which impaction bone grafting was used to fill the contained defects and a tibial component was cemented in place. As a control, a cemented tibial component with modular metal augments was used in identical defects. All specimens were submitted to cyclical mechanical loading, during which cyclical and permanent tray displacement were determined.

The results showed satisfactory stability with all the techniques except the bone bag method. Using metal augments gave the highest initial stability, but obviously lacked any potential for bone restoration.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 2 | Pages 143 - 150
1 Feb 2009
Toms AD Mandalia V Haigh R Hopwood B

The management of patients with a painful total knee replacement requires careful assessment and a stepwise approach in order to diagnose the underlying pathology accurately. The management should include a multidisciplinary approach to the patient’s pain as well as addressing the underlying aetiology. Pain should be treated with appropriate analgesia, according to the analgesic ladder of the World Health Organisation. Special measures should be taken to identify and to treat any neuropathic pain. There are a number of intrinsic and extrinsic causes of a painful knee replacement which should be identified and treated early. Patients with unexplained pain and without any recognised pathology should be treated conservatively since they may improve over a period of time and rarely do so after a revision operation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 8 | Pages 981 - 987
1 Aug 2008
Whittaker JP Dharmarajan R Toms AD

The management of bone loss in revision replacement of the knee remains a challenge despite an array of options available to the surgeon. Bone loss may occur as a result of the original disease, the design of the prosthesis, the mechanism of failure or technical error at initial surgery. The aim of revision surgery is to relieve pain and improve function while addressing the mechanism of failure in order to reconstruct a stable platform with transfer of load to the host bone. Methods of reconstruction include the use of cement, modular metal augmentation of prostheses, custom-made, tumour-type or hinged implants and bone grafting.

The published results of the surgical techniques are summarised and a guide for the management of bone defects in revision surgery of the knee is presented.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 3 | Pages 265 - 271
1 Mar 2008
Mandalia V Eyres K Schranz P Toms AD

Evaluation of patients with painful total knee replacement requires a thorough clinical examination and relevant investigations in order to reach a diagnosis. Awareness of the common and uncommon problems leading to painful total knee replacement is useful in the diagnostic approach. This review article aims to act as a guide to the evaluation of patients with painful total knee replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 2 | Pages 149 - 155
1 Feb 2006
Toms AD Davidson D Masri BA Duncan CP

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 5 | Pages 656 - 663
1 May 2005
Toms AD McClelland D Chua L de Waal Malefijt M Verdonschot N Jones RS Kuiper J

Clinical experience of impaction bone grafting for revision knee arthroplasty is limited, with initial stability of the tibial tray emerging as a major concern. The length of the stem and its diameter have been altered to improve stability. Our aim was to investigate the effect of the type of stem, support of the rim and graft impaction on early stability of the tray.

We developed a system for impaction grafting of trays which we used with morsellised bone in artificial tibiae. Trays with short, long thick or long thin stems were implanted, with or without support of the rim. They were cyclically loaded while measuring relative movement.

Long-stemmed trays migrated 4.5 times less than short-stemmed trays, regardless of diameter. Those with support migrated 2.8 times less than those without. The migration of short-stemmed trays correlated inversely with the density of the impacted groups. That of impaction-grafted tibial trays was in the range reported for uncemented primary trays. Movements of short-stemmed trays without cortical support were largest and sensitive to the degree of compaction of the graft. If support of the rim was sufficient or a long stem was used, impacted morsellised bone graft achieved adequate initial stability.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 1 | Pages 113 - 115
1 Jan 2001
Toms AD Williams S White SH

We describe two patients with obturator dislocation of the hip which was irreducible by described techniques of closed reduction. The first required open reduction using the iliofemoral approach with release of rectus femoris. The second was treated on a traction table which allowed disengagement of the head and, when combined with simultaneous lateral traction, adduction and gradual release of the longitudinal traction, facilitated a smooth reduction. Since the hip is stable in flexion, early mobilisation in an extension-limiting brace avoids the prolonged bed rest traditionally recommended for this injury.