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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 8 | Pages 895 - 904
1 Aug 2023
Smith TO Dainty J Loveday DT Toms A Goldberg AJ Watts L Pennington MW Dawson J van der Meulen J MacGregor AJ


The aim of this study was to capture 12-month outcomes from a representative multicentre cohort of patients undergoing total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), describe the pattern of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) at 12 months, and identify predictors of these outcome measures.


Patients listed for a primary TAA at 19 NHS hospitals between February 2016 and October 2017 were eligible. PROMs data were collected preoperatively and at six and 12 months including: Manchester-Oxford Foot and Ankle Questionnaire (MOXFQ (foot and ankle)) and the EuroQol five-dimension five-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L). Radiological pre- and postoperative data included Kellgren-Lawrence score and implant position measurement. This was supplemented by data from the National Joint Registry through record linkage to determine: American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade at index procedure; indication for surgery, index ankle previous fracture; tibial hind foot alignment; additional surgery at the time of TAA; and implant type. Multivariate regression models assessed outcomes, and the relationship between MOXFQ and EQ-5D-5L outcomes, with patient characteristics.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1479 - 1488
1 Nov 2016
Kalson NS Borthwick LA Mann DA Deehan DJ Lewis P Mann C Mont MA Morgan-Jones R Oussedik S Williams FMK Toms A Argenson JN Bellemans J Bhave A Furnes O Gollwitzer H Haddad FS Hofmann S Krenn V


The aim of this consensus was to develop a definition of post-operative fibrosis of the knee.

Patients and Methods

An international panel of experts took part in a formal consensus process composed of a discussion phase and three Delphi rounds.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 4 | Pages 437 - 441
1 Apr 2016
Middleton S Toms A

We explored the literature surrounding whether allergy and hypersensitivity has a clinical basis for implant selection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In error, the terms hypersensitivity and allergy are often used synonymously. Although a relationship is present, we could not find any evidence of implant failure due to allergy. There is however increasing basic science that suggests a link between loosening and metal ion production. This is not an allergic response but is a potential problem. With a lack of evidence logically there can be no justification to use ‘hypoallergenic’ implants in patients who have pre-existing skin sensitivity to the metals used in TKA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:437–41.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1170 - 1174
1 Sep 2015
Patel A Pavlou G Ahmad RA Toms A

In England and Wales more than 175 000 hip and knee arthroplasties were performed in 2012. There continues to be a steady increase in the demand for joint arthroplasty because of population demographics and improving survivorship. Inevitably though the absolute number of periprosthetic infections will probably increase with severe consequences on healthcare provision. The Department of Health and the Health Protection Agency in United Kingdom established a Surgical Site Infection surveillance service (SSISS) in 1997 to undertake surveillance of surgical site infections. In 2004 mandatory reporting was introduced for one quarter of each year. There has been a wide variation in reporting rates with variable engagement with the process. The aim of this article is to improve surgeon awareness of the process and emphasise the importance of engaging with SSISS to improve the quality and type of data submitted. In Exeter we have been improving our practice by engaging with SSISS. Orthopaedic surgeons need to take ownership of the data that are submitted to ensure these are accurate and comprehensive.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1170–4.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1035 - 1039
1 Aug 2013
Ebreo D Bell PJ Arshad H Donell ST Toms A Nolan JF

Metal artefact reduction (MAR) MRI is now widely considered to be the standard for imaging metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants. The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has recommended cross-sectional imaging for all patients with symptomatic MoM bearings. This paper describes the natural history of MoM disease in a 28 mm MoM total hip replacement (THR) using MAR MRI. Inclusion criteria were patients with MoM THRs who had not been revised and had at least two serial MAR MRI scans. All examinations were reported by an experienced observer and classified as A (normal), B (infection) or C1–C3 (mild, moderate, severe MoM-related abnormalities). Between 2002 and 2011 a total of 239 MRIs were performed on 80 patients (two to four scans per THR); 63 initial MRIs (61%) were normal. On subsequent MRIs, six initially normal scans (9.5%) showed progression to a disease state; 15 (15%) of 103 THRs with sequential scans demonstrated worsening disease on subsequent imaging.

Most patients with a MoM THR who do not undergo early revision have normal MRI scans. Late progression (from normal to abnormal, or from mild to more severe MoM disease) is not common and takes place over several years.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1035–9.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1501 - 1508
1 Nov 2010
Donell ST Darrah C Nolan JF Wimhurst J Toms A Barker THW Case CP Tucker JK

Metal-on-metal total hip replacement has been targeted at younger patients with anticipated long-term survival, but the effect of the production of metal ions is a concern because of their possible toxicity to cells. We have reviewed the results of the use of the Ultima hybrid metal-on-metal total hip replacement, with a cemented polished tapered femoral component with a 28 mm diameter and a cobalt-chrome (CoCr) modular head, articulating with a 28 mm CoCr acetabular bearing surface secured in a titanium alloy uncemented shell.

Between 1997 and 2004, 545 patients with 652 affected hips underwent replacement using this system. Up to 31 January 2008, 90 (13.8%) hips in 82 patients had been revised. Pain was the sole reason for revision in 44 hips (48.9%) of which 35 had normal plain radiographs. Peri-prosthetic fractures occurred in 17 hips (18.9%) with early dislocation in three (3.3%) and late dislocation in 16 (17.8%). Infection was found in nine hips (10.0%).

At operation, a range of changes was noted including cavities containing cloudy fluid under pressure, necrotic soft tissues with avulsed tendons and denuded osteonecrotic upper femora. Corrosion was frequently observed on the retrieved cemented part of the femoral component. Typically, the peri-operative findings confirmed those found on pre-operative metal artefact reduction sequence MRI and histological examination showed severe necrosis.

Metal artefact reduction sequence MRI proved to be useful when investigating these patients with pain in the absence of adverse plain radiological features.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 6 | Pages 832 - 836
1 Jun 2006
Barker R Takahashi T Toms A Gregson P Kuiper JH

The use of impaction bone grafting during revision arthroplasty of the hip in the presence of cortical defects has a high risk of post-operative fracture. Our laboratory study addressed the effect of extramedullary augmentation and length of femoral stem on the initial stability of the prosthesis and the risk of fracture.

Cortical defects in plastic femora were repaired using either surgical mesh without extramedullary augmentation, mesh with a strut graft or mesh with a plate. After bone impaction, standard or long-stem Exeter prostheses were inserted, which were tested by cyclical loading while measuring defect strain and migration of the stem.

Compared with standard stems without extramedullary augmentation, defect strains were 31% lower with longer stems, 43% lower with a plate and 50% lower with a strut graft. Combining extramedullary augmentation with a long stem showed little additional benefit (p = 0.67). The type of repair did not affect the initial stability. Our results support the use of impaction bone grafting and extramedullary augmentation of diaphyseal defects after mesh containment.