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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 3 | Pages 346 - 351
1 Mar 2018
Goodall R Claireaux H Hill J Wilson E Monsell F BOAST 11 Collaborative Tarassoli P


Supracondylar fractures are the most frequently occurring paediatric fractures about the elbow and may be associated with a neurovascular injury. The British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma 11 (BOAST 11) guidelines describe best practice for supracondylar fracture management. This study aimed to assess whether emergency departments in the United Kingdom adhere to BOAST 11 standard 1: a documented assessment, performed on presentation, must include the status of the radial pulse, digital capillary refill time, and the individual function of the radial, median (including the anterior interosseous), and ulnar nerves.

Materials and Methods

Stage 1: We conducted a multicentre, retrospective audit of adherence to BOAST 11 standard 1. Data were collected from eight hospitals in the United Kingdom. A total of 433 children with Gartland type 2 or 3 supracondylar fractures were eligible for inclusion. A centrally created data collection sheet was used to guide objective analysis of whether BOAST 11 standard 1 was adhered to. Stage 2: We created a quality improvement proforma for use in emergency departments. This was piloted in one of the hospitals used in the primary audit and was re-audited using equivalent methodology. In all, 102 patients presenting between January 2016 and July 2017 were eligible for inclusion in the re-audit.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 3 | Pages 406 - 413
1 Mar 2014
Tarassoli P Gargan MF Atherton WG Thomas SRYW

The medial approach for the treatment of children with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in whom closed reduction has failed requires minimal access with negligible blood loss. In the United Kingdom, there is a preference for these children to be treated using an anterolateral approach after the appearance of the ossific nucleus. In this study we compared these two protocols, primarily for the risk of osteonecrosis.

Data were gathered prospectively for protocols involving the medial approach (26 hips in 22 children) and the anterolateral approach (22 hips in 21 children) in children aged <  24 months at the time of surgery. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head was assessed with validated scores. The acetabular index (AI) and centre–edge angle (CEA) were also measured.

The mean age of the children at the time of surgery was 11 months (3 to 24) for the medial approach group and 18 months (12 to 24) for the anterolateral group, and the combined mean follow-up was 70 months (26 to 228). Osteonecrosis of the femoral head was evident or asphericity predicted in three of 26 hips (12%) in the medial approach group and four of 22 (18%) in the anterolateral group (p = 0.52). The mean improvement in AI was 8.8° (4° to 12°) and 7.9° (6° to 10°), respectively, at two years post-operatively (p = 0.18). There was no significant difference in CEA values of affected hips between the two groups.

Children treated using an early medial approach did not have a higher risk of developing osteonecrosis at early to mid-term follow-up than those treated using a delayed anterolateral approach. The rates of acetabular remodelling were similar for both protocols.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:406–13.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1308 - 1313
1 Oct 2011
Hart AJ Sabah SA Bandi AS Maggiore P Tarassoli P Sampson B A. Skinner J

Blood metal ions have been widely used to investigate metal-on-metal hip replacements, but their ability to discriminate between well-functioning and failed hips is not known. The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has suggested a cut-off level of 7 parts per billion (ppb).

We performed a pair-matched, case-control study to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of blood metal ion levels for diagnosing failure in 176 patients with a unilateral metal-on-metal hip replacement. We recruited 88 cases with a pre-revision, unexplained failed hip and an equal number of matching controls with a well-functioning hip. We investigated the 7 ppb cut-off level for the maximum of cobalt or chromium and determined optimal mathematical cut-off levels from receiver-operating characteristic curves.

The 7 ppb cut-off level for the maximum of cobalt or chromium had a specificity of 89% and sensitivity 52% for detecting a pre-operative unexplained failed metal on metal hip replacement. The optimal cut-off level for the maximum of cobalt or chromium was 4.97 ppb and had sensitivity 63% and specificity 86%.

Blood metal ions had good discriminant ability to separate failed from well-functioning hip replacements. The MHRA cut-off level of 7 ppb provides a specific test but has poor sensitivity.