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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 2 | Pages 79 - 86
1 Feb 2024
Sato R Hamada H Uemura K Takashima K Ando W Takao M Saito M Sugano N


This study aimed to investigate the incidence of ≥ 5 mm asymmetry in lower and whole leg lengths (LLs) in patients with unilateral osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH-OA) and primary hip osteoarthritis (PHOA), and the relationship between lower and whole LL asymmetries and femoral length asymmetry.


In total, 116 patients who underwent unilateral total hip arthroplasty were included in this study. Of these, 93 had DDH-OA and 23 had PHOA. Patients with DDH-OA were categorized into three groups: Crowe grade I, II/III, and IV. Anatomical femoral length, femoral length greater trochanter (GT), femoral length lesser trochanter (LT), tibial length, foot height, lower LL, and whole LL were evaluated using preoperative CT data of the whole leg in the supine position. Asymmetry was evaluated in the Crowe I, II/III, IV, and PHOA groups.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 9 | Pages 590 - 597
20 Sep 2023
Uemura K Otake Y Takashima K Hamada H Imagama T Takao M Sakai T Sato Y Okada S Sugano N


This study aimed to develop and validate a fully automated system that quantifies proximal femoral bone mineral density (BMD) from CT images.


The study analyzed 978 pairs of hip CT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of the proximal femur (DXA-BMD) collected from three institutions. From the CT images, the femur and a calibration phantom were automatically segmented using previously trained deep-learning models. The Hounsfield units of each voxel were converted into density (mg/cm3). Then, a deep-learning model trained by manual landmark selection of 315 cases was developed to select the landmarks at the proximal femur to rotate the CT volume to the neutral position. Finally, the CT volume of the femur was projected onto the coronal plane, and the areal BMD of the proximal femur (CT-aBMD) was quantified. CT-aBMD correlated to DXA-BMD, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis quantified the accuracy in diagnosing osteoporosis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1656 - 1661
1 Nov 2021
Iwasa M Ando W Uemura K Hamada H Takao M Sugano N


Pelvic incidence (PI) is considered an important anatomical parameter for determining the sagittal balance of the spine. The contribution of an abnormal PI to hip osteoarthritis (OA) remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between PI and hip OA, and the difference in PI between hip OA without anatomical abnormalities (primary OA) and hip OA with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH-OA).


In this study, 100 patients each of primary OA, DDH-OA, and control subjects with no history of hip disease were included. CT images were used to measure PI, sagittal femoral head coverage, α angle, and acetabular anteversion. PI was also subdivided into three categories: high PI (larger than 64.0°), medium PI (42.0° to 64.0°), and low PI (less than 42.0°). The anterior centre edge angles, posterior centre edge angles, and total sagittal femoral head coverage were measured. The correlations between PI and sagittal femoral head coverage, α angle, and acetabular anteversion were examined.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 3 | Pages 297 - 302
1 Mar 2019
Tamura K Takao M Hamada H Ando W Sakai T Sugano N


The aim of this study was to examine whether hips with unilateral osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) have significant asymmetry in femoral length, and to determine potential related factors.

Patients and Methods

We enrolled 90 patients (82 female, eight male) with DDH showing unilateral OA changes, and 43 healthy volunteers (26 female, 17 male) as controls. The mean age was 61.8 years (39 to 93) for the DDH groups, and 71.2 years (57 to 84) for the control group. Using a CT-based coordinate measurement system, we evaluated the following vertical distances: top of the greater trochanter to the knee centre (femoral length GT), most medial prominence of the lesser trochanter to the knee centre (femoral length LT), and top of the greater trochanter to the medial prominence of the lesser trochanter (intertrochanteric distance), along with assessments of femoral neck anteversion and neck shaft angle.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 5 | Pages 580 - 589
1 May 2014
Nakahara I Takao M Sakai T Miki H Nishii T Sugano N

To confirm whether developmental dysplasia of the hip has a risk of hip impingement, we analysed maximum ranges of movement to the point of bony impingement, and impingement location using three-dimensional (3D) surface models of the pelvis and femur in combination with 3D morphology of the hip joint using computer-assisted methods. Results of computed tomography were examined for 52 hip joints with DDH and 73 normal healthy hip joints. DDH shows larger maximum extension (p = 0.001) and internal rotation at 90° flexion (p < 0.001). Similar maximum flexion (p = 0.835) and external rotation (p = 0.713) were observed between groups, while high rates of extra-articular impingement were noticed in these directions in DDH (p < 0.001). Smaller cranial acetabular anteversion (p = 0.048), centre-edge angles (p < 0.001), a circumferentially shallower acetabulum, larger femoral neck anteversion (p < 0.001), and larger alpha angle were identified in DDH. Risk of anterior impingement in retroverted DDH hips is similar to that in retroverted normal hips in excessive adduction but minimal in less adduction. These findings might be borne in mind when considering the possibility of extra-articular posterior impingement in DDH being a source of pain, particularly for patients with a highly anteverted femoral neck.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:580–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1320 - 1325
1 Oct 2013
Tamura S Nishii T Takao M Sakai T Yoshikawa H Sugano N

We investigated differences in the location and mode of labral tears between dysplastic hips and hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). We also investigated the relationship between labral tear and adjacent cartilage damage. We retrospectively studied 72 symptomatic hips (in 68 patients: 19 men and 49 women) with radiological evidence of dysplasia or FAI on high-resolution CT arthrography. The incidence and location of labral tears and modes of tear associated with the base of the labrum (Mode 1) or body of the labrum (Mode 2) were compared among FAI, mildly dysplastic and severely dysplastic hips. The locations predominantly involved with labral tears were different in FAI and mild dysplastic hips (anterior and anterosuperior zones) and in severely dysplastic hips (anterosuperior and superior zones) around the acetabulum. Significant differences were observed in the prevalence of Mode 1 versus Mode 2 tears in FAI hips (72% (n = 13) vs 28% (n = 5)) and severe dysplastic hips (25% (n = 2) vs 75% (n = 6)). The frequency of cartilage damage adjacent to Mode 1 tears was significantly higher (42% (n = 14)) than that adjacent to Mode 2 tears (14% (n = 3)).

Hip pathology is significantly related to the locations and modes of labral tears. Mode 1 tears may be a risk factor for the development of adjacent acetabular cartilage damage.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1320–5.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1215 - 1221
1 Sep 2010
Sakai T Ohzono K Nishii T Miki H Takao M Sugano N

The long-term results of grafting with hydroxyapatite granules for acetabular deficiency in revision total hip replacement are not well known. We have evaluated the results of revision using a modular cup with hydroxyapatite grafting for Paprosky type 2 and 3 acetabular defects at a minimum of ten years’ follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed 49 acetabular revisions at a mean of 135 months (120 to 178). There was one type 2B, ten 2C, 28 3A and ten 3B hips. With loosening as the endpoint, the survival rate was 74.2% (95% confidence interval 58.3 to 90.1). Radiologically, four of the type 3A hips (14%) and six of the type 3B hips (60%) showed aseptic loosening with collapse of the hydroxyapatite layer, whereas no loosening occurred in type 2 hips. There was consolidation of the hydroxyapatite layer in 33 hips (66%). Loosening was detected in nine of 29 hips (31%) without cement and in one of 20 hips (5%) with cement (p = 0.03, Fisher’s exact probability test). The linear wear and annual wear rate did not correlate with loosening.

These results suggest that the long-term results of hydroxyapatite grafting with cement for type 2 and 3A hips are encouraging.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 6 | Pages 770 - 776
1 Jun 2010
Sakai T Ohzono K Nishii T Miki H Takao M Sugano N

We compared a modular neck system with a non-modular system in a cementless anatomical total hip replacement (THR). Each group consisted of 74 hips with developmental hip dysplasia. Both groups had the same cementless acetabular component and the same articulation, which consisted of a conventional polyethylene liner and a 28 mm alumina head. The mean follow-up was 14.5 years (13 to 15), at which point there were significant differences in the mean total Harris hip score (modular/non-modular: 98.6 (64 to 100)/93.8 (68 to 100)), the mean range of abduction (32° (15° to 40°)/28 (0° to 40°)), use of a 10° elevated liner (31%/100%), the incidence of osteolysis (27%/79.7%) and the incidence of equal leg lengths (≥ 6 mm, 92%/61%). There was no disassociation or fracture of the modular neck.

The modular system reduces the need for an elevated liner, thereby reducing the incidence of osteolysis. It gives a better range of movement and allows the surgeon to make an accurate adjustment of leg length.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 3 | Pages 324 - 329
1 Apr 2003
Takao M Ochi M Oae K Naito K Uchio Y

In 52 patients we compared the accuracy of standard anteroposterior (AP) radiography, mortise radiography and MRI with arthroscopy of the ankle for the diagnosis of a tear of the tibiofibular syndesmosis. In comparison with arthroscopy, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 44.1%, 100% and 63.5% for standard AP radiography and 58.3%, 100% and 71.2% for mortise radiography. For MRI they were 100%, 93.1% and 96.2% for a tear of the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament and 100%, 100% and 100% for a tear of the posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament. Standard AP and mortise radiography did not always provide a correct diagnosis. MRI was useful although there were two-false positive cases. We suggest that arthroscopy of the ankle is indispensable for the accurate diagnosis of a tear of the tibiofibular syndesmosis.