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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 3 | Pages 123 - 131
1 Mar 2017
Sasaki T Akagi R Akatsu Y Fukawa T Hoshi H Yamamoto Y Enomoto T Sato Y Nakagawa R Takahashi K Yamaguchi S Sasho T


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation in vitro and to determine whether pre-microfracture systemic administration of G-CSF (a bone marrow stimulant) could improve the quality of repaired tissue of a full-thickness cartilage defect in a rabbit model.


MSCs from rabbits were cultured in a control medium and medium with G-CSF (low-dose: 4 μg, high-dose: 40 μg). At one, three, and five days after culturing, cells were counted. Differential potential of cultured cells were examined by stimulating them with a osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic medium.

A total of 30 rabbits were divided into three groups. The low-dose group (n = 10) received 10 μg/kg of G-CSF daily, the high-dose group (n = 10) received 50 μg/kg daily by subcutaneous injection for three days prior to creating cartilage defects. The control group (n = 10) was administered saline for three days. At 48 hours after the first injection, a 5.2 mm diameter cylindrical osteochondral defect was created in the femoral trochlea. At four and 12 weeks post-operatively, repaired tissue was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 3 | Pages 387 - 394
1 Mar 2016
Eguchi Y Oikawa Y Suzuki M Orita S Yamauchi K Suzuki M Aoki Y Watanabe A Takahashi K Ohtori S


The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course of changes in parameters of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. We also investigated the correlation between the severity of neurological symptoms and these parameters.

Patients and Methods

A total of 13 patients with unilateral radiculopathy due to herniation of a lumbar disc were investigated with DTI on a 1.5T MR scanner and underwent micro discectomy. There were nine men and four women, with a median age of 55.5 years (19 to 79). The changes in the mean FA and ADC values and the correlation between these changes and the severity of the neurological symptoms were investigated before and at six months after surgery.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 6 | Pages 789 - 794
1 Jun 2014
Sukegawa K Kuniyoshi K Suzuki T Ogawa Y Okamoto S Shibayama M Kobayashi T Takahashi K

We conducted an anatomical study to determine the best technique for transfer of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) for the treatment of proximal ulnar nerve injuries. The AIN, ulnar nerve, and associated branches were dissected in 24 cadaver arms. The number of branches of the AIN and length available for transfer were measured. The nerve was divided just proximal to its termination in pronator quadratus and transferred to the ulnar nerve through the shortest available route. Separation of the deep and superficial branches of the ulnar nerve by blunt dissection alone, was also assessed. The mean number of AIN branches was 4.8 (3 to 8) and the mean length of the nerve available for transfer was 72 mm (41 to 106). The transferred nerve reached the ulnar nerve most distally when placed dorsal to flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). We therefore conclude that the AIN should be passed dorsal to FDP, and that the deep and superficial branches of the ulnar nerve require approximately 30 mm of blunt dissection and 20 mm of sharp dissection from the point of bifurcation to the site of the anastomosis.

The use of this technique for transfer of the AIN should improve the outcome for patients with proximal ulnar nerve injuries.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:789–94.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1192 - 1196
1 Sep 2013
Okano K Yamaguchi K Ninomiya Y Matsubayashi S Osaki M Takahashi K

Patients with acetabular dysplasia commonly undergo peri-acetabular osteotomy after skeletal maturity to reduce the risk of the late development of osteoarthritis. Several studies have suggested that deformity of the femoral head influences the long-term outcome. We radiologically examined 224 hips in 112 patients with acetabular dysplasia and early-stage osteoarthritis. There were 103 women and nine men with a mean age of 37.6 years (18 to 49). A total of 201 hips were placed in the acetabular dysplasia group and 23 in a normal group. The centre–edge angle and acetabular head index were significantly smaller (both p < 0.001), and the acetabular angle, acetabular roof angle and roundness index were significantly greater in the acetabular dysplasia group than those in the normal group (all p < 0.001). There were significant correlations between the roundness index and other parameters. Femoral head shape may be influenced by the severity of the acetabular dysplasia.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1192–6.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 1, Issue 1 | Pages 8 - 12
1 Jan 2012
Shigemura T Kishida S Eguchi Y Ohtori S Nakamura J Kojima M Masuda Y Takahashi K


The purpose of this study was to assess N-acetyl aspartate changes in the thalamus in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.


Nine patients with osteoarthritis of the hip (symptomatic group, nine women; mean age 61.4 years (48 to 78)) and nine healthy volunteers (control group, six men, three women; mean age 30.0 years (26 to 38)) underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess the changes of N-acetyl aspartate in the thalamus.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 2 | Pages 254 - 257
1 Feb 2008
Nakajima T Ohtori S Inoue G Koshi T Yamamoto S Nakamura J Takahashi K Harada Y

Using a rat model the characteristics of the sensory neurones of the dorsal-root ganglia (DRG) innervating the hip were investigated by retrograde neurotransport and immunohistochemistry.

Fluoro-Gold solution (FG) was injected into the left hip of ten rats. Seven days later the DRG from both sides between T12 and L6 were harvested. The number of FG-labelled calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive or isolectin B4-binding neurones were counted.

The FG-labelled neurones were distributed throughout the left DRGs between T13 and L5, primarily at L2, L3, and L4. Few FG-labelled isolectin B4-binding neurones were present in the DRGs of either side between T13 and L5, but calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive neurones made up 30% of all FG-labelled neurones.

Our findings may explain the referral of pain from the hip to the thigh or lower leg corresponding to the L2, L3 and L4 levels. Since most neurones are calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive peptide-containing neurones, they may have a more significant role in the perception of pain in the hip as peptidergic DRG neurones.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 5 | Pages 687 - 691
1 May 2005
Aihara T Takahashi K Ogasawara A Itadera E Ono Y Moriya H

We studied 52 patients, each with a lumbosacral transitional vertebra. Using MRI we found that the lumbar discs immediately above the transitional vertebra were significantly more degenerative and those between the transitional vertebrae and the sacrum were significantly less degenerative compared with discs at other levels. We also performed an anatomical study using 70 cadavers. We found that the iliolumbar ligament at the level immediately above the transitional vertebra was thinner and weaker than it was in cadavers without a lumbosacral transitional vertebra.

Instability of the vertebral segment above the transitional vertebra because of a weak iliolumbar ligament could lead to subsequent disc degeneration which may occur earlier than at other disc levels. Some stability between the transitional vertebra and the sacrum could be preserved by the formation of either an articulation or by bony union between the vertebra and the sacrum through its transverse process. This may protect the disc from further degeneration in the long term.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 4 | Pages 600 - 603
1 May 2003
Sameda H Takahashi Y Takahashi K Chiba T Ohtori S Moriya H

Dorsal root ganglion neurones with dichotomising axons are present in several species and are considered to play a role in referred pain. Clinically, patients with lesions in the lower lumbar discs occasionally complain of pain in the groin. We investigated the existence of dichotomising afferent neurones projecting axons both to the lumbar disc and to the groin skin, using the double fluorescent-labelling technique in rats.

We observed neurones labelled with a tracer applied at the ventral portion of the L5-L6 disc and another tracer placed on the groin skin in L1 and L2 dorsal root ganglia. Our results showed that the double-labelled neurones had peripheral axons which dichotomised into both the L5-L6 disc and the groin skin, indicating the convergence of afferent sensory information from the disc and groin skin. Our findings provide a possible neuroanatomical mechanism for referred groin pain in patients with disc lesions.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 1 | Pages 95 - 99
1 Jan 2003
Murata Y Takahashi K Yamagata M Hanaoka E Moriya H

Degenerative changes of the knee often cause loss of extension. This may affect aspects of posture such as lumbar lordosis. A total of 366 patients underwent radiological examination of the lumbar spine in a standing position. The knee and body angles were measured by physical examination using a goniometer. Limitation of extension of the knee was significantly greater in patients whose lumbar lordosis was 30° or less. Lumbar lordosis was significantly reduced in patients whose limitation of extension of the knee was more than 5°. It decreased over the age of 70 years, and the limitation of extension of the knee increased over the age of 60 years. Our study indicates that symptoms from the lumbar spine may be caused by degenerative changes in the knee. This may be called the ‘knee-spine syndrome’.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 6 | Pages 798 - 801
1 Aug 2002
Murata Y Takahashi K Yamagata M Sameda H Moriya H

In patients who underwent autogenous iliac bone grafting we studied prospectively injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) in relation to the size (length, depth, width) of the graft. We also examined the neurological deficit, by questioning them about numbness and/or pain in the lateral thigh.

The risk of injury was significantly higher in those in whom the depth of the graft was more than 30 mm. With regard to the length of the graft the incidence of nerve injury was 20% when the graft was 45 mm long or more, 16% when it was between 30 mm and 45 mm long, and 8% when it was less than 30 mm long. We should inform patients of the possibility of such injury, and take size into consideration when harvesting grafts from the ilium.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1191 - 1194
1 Nov 2001
Ohtori S Takahashi K Yamagata M Sameda H Moriya H Chiba T Takahashi Y

Based on a study using a retrograde neurotracer, we have previously found that the dorsal portion of the L5/6 disc in the rat is multisegmentally innervated by dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from the level of T13 to L6, and that sensory nerve fibres from DRG of T13, L1 and L2 pass through the paravertebral sympathetic trunks. In this study in newborn rats, we injected crystals of 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylinedocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) into the DRG of T13, L1 and L2 and showed DiI-labelled sensory nerve fibres in the dorsal portion of the discs from the level of T13/L1 to L5/6. Our results show that the dorsal portion of the lumbar discs is innervated by the DRG from levels T13 to L2.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1001 - 1004
1 Sep 2001
Yasunaga Y Ikuta Y Kanazawa T Takahashi K Hisatome T

We have studied whether the state of the articular cartilage at the time of rotational acetabular osteotomy for dysplasia of the hip affects the outcome 2 to 5.5 years after surgery. Arthroscopy in 57 patients (59 joints) at the time of the operation showed grade-0 changes in seven, grade-1 in nine, grade-2 in 17, grade-3 in 14 and grade-4 in 12 joints, according to the classification of Outerbridge. There was radiological evidence of the progression of arthritis in four joints which were classified at arthroscopy as grade 4.

Stepwise regression analysis showed that damage to acetabular or femoral articular cartilage significantly affected the progression of arthritis. We conclude that the short-term results of successful rotational acetabular osteotomy for dysplasia are affected by the state of the articular cartilage.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 5 | Pages 760 - 766
1 Jul 2001
Suzuki H Takahashi K Yamagata M Shimizu S Moriya H Yamazaki M

We have examined the process of fusion of the intertransverse processes and bone graft in the rabbit by in situ hybridisation and evaluated the spatial and temporal expression of genes encoding pro-α1 (I) collagen (COL1A1), pro-α1 (II) collagen (COL2A1) and pro-α1 (X) collagen (COL10A1).

Beginning at two weeks after operation, osteogenesis and chondrogenesis occurred around the transverse process and the grafted bone at the central portion of the area of the fusion mass. Osteoblasts and osteocytes at the newly-formed woven bone expressed COL1A1. At the cartilage, most chondrocytes expressed COL2A1 and some hypertrophic chondrocytes COL10A1. In some regions, co-expression of COL1A1 and COL2A1 was observed. At four weeks, such expressions for COL1A1, COL2A1 and COL10A1 became prominent at the area of the fusion mass. From four to six weeks, bone remodelling progressed from the area of the transverse processes towards the central zone. Osteoblasts lining the trabeculae expressed a strong signal for COL1A1. At the central portion of the area of the fusion mass, endochondral ossification progressed and chondrocytes expressed COL2A1 and COL10A1.

Our findings show that the fusion process begins with the synthesis of collagens around the transverse processes and around the grafted bone independently. Various spatial and temporal osteogenic and chondrogenic responses, including intramembranous, endochondral and transchondroid bone formation, progress after bone grafting at the intertransverse processes. Bone formation through cartilage may play an important role in posterolateral spinal fusion.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 1 | Pages 112 - 113
1 Jan 2001
Murata Y Takahashi K Murakami M Moriya H

We describe a 47-year-old woman with sciatic neuropathy caused by compression of the sacral plexus by posterior shift of the uterus.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 6 | Pages 846 - 850
1 Aug 2000
Aihara T Takahashi K Yamagata M Moriya H Shimada Y

We studied 23 patients with spondylolysis of the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) and 20 with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at this level. All were more than 40 years of age. The transverse processes at L5 were significantly wider in the former group than in the latter. We also dissected 56 cadavers to study the morphological relationship between the transverse process of L5 and the iliolumbar ligament, and found that the wider transverse process is associated with increased width of the posterior band of the iliolumbar ligament.

If a patient with pars defects has wide transverse processes at L5, the lumbosacral junction may be stabilised by wide posterior bands of the iliolumbar ligament and the fifth lumbar vertebra by the ligament, preventing anterior displacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 5 | Pages 840 - 845
1 Sep 1998
Aihara T Takahashi K Yamagata M Moriya H

We have studied fracture-dislocation of the fifth lumbar vertebra in seven patients and reviewed 50 previously reported cases. Based on this information, we have classified the injury into five types: type 1, unilateral lumbosacral facet-dislocation with or without facet fracture; type 2, bilateral lumbosacral facet-dislocation with or without facet fracture; type 3, unilateral lumbosacral facet-dislocation and contralateral lumbosacral facet fracture; type 4, dislocation of the body of L5 with bilateral fracture of the pars interarticularis; and type 5, dislocation of the body of L5 with fracture of the body and/or pedicle, with or without injury of the lamina and/or facet.

Conservative treatment of fracture-dislocation of L5 is generally not effective because the lesion is fundamentally unstable. Planning of the operation should be made on the basis of the various types of injury.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 4 | Pages 737 - 742
1 Jul 1998
Suseki K Takahashi Y Takahashi K Chiba T Yamagata M Moriya H

It has been thought that lumbar intervertebral discs were innervated segmentally. We have previously shown that the L5-L6 intervertebral disc in the rat is innervated bilaterally from the L1 and L2 dorsal root ganglia through the paravertebral sympathetic trunks, but the pathways between the disc and the paravertebral sympathetic trunks were unknown.

We have now studied the spines of 17 rats to elucidate the exact pathways. We examined serial sections of the lumbar spine using immunohistochemistry for calcitonin gene-related peptide, a sensory nerve marker. We showed that these nerve fibres from the intervertebral disc ran through the sinuvertebral nerve into the rami communicantes, not into the corresponding segmental spinal nerve.

In the rat, sensory information from the lumbar intervertebral discs is conducted through rami communicantes. If this innervation pattern applies to man, simple decompression of the corresponding nerve root will not relieve discogenic pain. Anterior interbody fusion, with the denervation of rami communicantes, may be effective for such low back pain.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 4 | Pages 606 - 612
1 Jul 1996
Nakamura S Takahashi K Takahashi Y Yamagata M Moriya H

The afferent pathways of discogenic low-back pain have not been fully investigated. We hypothesised that this pain was transmitted mainly by sympathetic afferent fibres in the L2 nerve root, and in 33 patients we used selective local anaesthesia of this nerve.

Low-back pain disappeared or significantly decreased in all patients after the injection. Needle insertion provoked pain which radiated to the low back in 23 patients and the area of skin hypoalgesia produced included the area of pre-existing pain in all but one. None of the nine patients with related sciatica had relief of that component of their symptoms.

Our findings show that the main afferent pathways of pain from the lower intervertebral discs are through the L2 spinal nerve root, presumably via sympathetic afferents from the sinuvertebral nerves. Discogenic low-back pain should be regarded as a visceral pain in respect of its neural pathways. Infiltration of the L2 nerve is a useful diagnostic test and also has some therapeutic value.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 5 | Pages 757 - 764
1 Sep 1994
Toyone T Takahashi K Kitahara H Yamagata M Murakami M Moriya H

We carried out MRI studies of 74 patients with end-plate and vertebral bone-marrow changes associated with degenerative lumbar disc disease. Abnormalities were classified into type A, with decreased signal intensities, and type B, with increased signal intensities on T1-weighted spin-echo images. Twenty-seven (73%) of the 37 patients with type-A changes had low back pain, in contrast to only four (11%) of the 37 patients with type-B changes. Lateral flexion-extension radiographs showed hypermobility in 26 patients (70%) with type-A changes, and in only six (16%) with type-B changes. Type-A changes correlated with segmental hypermobility and low back pain, while type-B changes were more common in patients with stable degenerative disc disease.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 2 | Pages 220 - 224
1 Mar 1994
Takata K Takahashi K

We evaluated the nerve roots of the cauda equina by CT myelography in 36 patients aged from 11 to 19 years with lumbar disc herniation. On straight-leg-raising tests, six younger patients had isolated hamstring tightness with no sciatica (group A) and 30 had sciatic pain (group B). CT myelography showed that no patient in group A had associated nerve-root swelling, and that the roots were displaced posteriorly, but not compressed. In 21 of the group-B patients, swelling of the nerve roots was confirmed, with compression between the herniated disc and the superior articular process. Our findings suggest that hamstring tightness in these patients may be caused by a different mechanism from that which causes sciatic pain.