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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 11 | Pages 787 - 802
1 Nov 2022
Sebastian S Tandberg F Liu Y Raina DB Tägil M Collin M Lidgren L


There is a lack of biomaterial-based carriers for the local delivery of rifampicin (RIF), one of the cornerstone second defence antibiotics for bone infections. RIF is also known for causing rapid development of antibiotic resistance when given as monotherapy. This in vitro study evaluated a clinically used biphasic calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite (CaS/HA) biomaterial as a carrier for dual delivery of RIF with vancomycin (VAN) or gentamicin (GEN).


The CaS/HA composites containing RIF/GEN/VAN, either alone or in combination, were first prepared and their injectability, setting time, and antibiotic elution profiles were assessed. Using a continuous disk diffusion assay, the antibacterial behaviour of the material was tested on both planktonic and biofilm-embedded forms of standard and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus for 28 days. Development of bacterial resistance to RIF was determined by exposing the biofilm-embedded bacteria continuously to released fractions of antibiotics from CaS/HA-antibiotic composites.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 10 | Pages 709 - 718
1 Oct 2020
Raina DB Liu Y Jacobson OLP Tanner KE Tägil M Lidgren L

Bone is a dynamic tissue with a quarter of the trabecular and a fifth of the cortical bone being replaced continuously each year in a complex process that continues throughout an individual’s lifetime. Bone has an important role in homeostasis of minerals with non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite bone mineral forming the inorganic phase of bone. Due to its crystal structure and chemistry, hydroxyapatite (HA) and related apatites have a remarkable ability to bind molecules. This review article describes the accretion of trace elements in bone mineral giving a historical perspective. Implanted HA particles of synthetic origin have proved to be an efficient recruiting moiety for systemically circulating drugs which can locally biomodulate the material and lead to a therapeutic effect. Bone mineral and apatite however also act as a waste dump for trace elements and drugs, which significantly affects the environment and human health.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2020;9(10):709–718.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 10 | Pages 548 - 560
1 Oct 2018
Qayoom I Raina DB Širka A Tarasevičius Š Tägil M Kumar A Lidgren L

During the last decades, several research groups have used bisphosphonates for local application to counteract secondary bone resorption after bone grafting, to improve implant fixation or to control bone resorption caused by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). We focused on zoledronate (a bisphosphonate) due to its greater antiresorptive potential over other bisphosphonates. Recently, it has become obvious that the carrier is of importance to modulate the concentration and elution profile of the zoledronic acid locally. Incorporating one fifth of the recommended systemic dose of zoledronate with different apatite matrices and types of bone defects has been shown to enhance bone regeneration significantly in vivo. We expect the local delivery of zoledronate to overcome the limitations and side effects associated with systemic usage; however, we need to know more about the bioavailability and the biological effects. The local use of BMP-2 and zoledronate as a combination has a proven additional effect on bone regeneration. This review focuses primarily on the local use of zoledronate alone, or in combination with bone anabolic factors, in various preclinical models mimicking different orthopaedic conditions.

Cite this article: I. Qayoom, D. B. Raina, A. Širka, Š. Tarasevičius, M. Tägil, A. Kumar, L. Lidgren. Anabolic and antiresorptive actions of locally delivered bisphosphonates for bone repair: A review. Bone Joint Res 2018;7:548–560. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.710.BJR-2018-0015.R2.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 10 | Pages 500 - 511
1 Oct 2016
Raina DB Gupta A Petersen MM Hettwer W McNally M Tägil M Zheng M Kumar A Lidgren L


We have observed clinical cases where bone is formed in the overlaying muscle covering surgically created bone defects treated with a hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biomaterial. Our objective was to investigate the osteoinductive potential of the biomaterial and to determine if growth factors secreted from local bone cells induce osteoblastic differentiation of muscle cells.

Materials and Methods

We seeded mouse skeletal muscle cells C2C12 on the hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biomaterial and the phenotype of the cells was analysed. To mimic surgical conditions with leakage of extra cellular matrix (ECM) proteins and growth factors, we cultured rat bone cells ROS 17/2.8 in a bioreactor and harvested the secreted proteins. The secretome was added to rat muscle cells L6. The phenotype of the muscle cells after treatment with the media was assessed using immunostaining and light microscopy.