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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 3 Supple A | Pages 104 - 109
1 Mar 2024
Sugano N Maeda Y Fuji H Tamura K Nakamura N Takashima K Uemura K Hamada H


Femoral component anteversion is an important factor in the success of total hip arthroplasty (THA). This retrospective study aimed to investigate the accuracy of femoral component anteversion with the Mako THA system and software using the Exeter cemented femoral component, compared to the Accolade II cementless femoral component.


We reviewed the data of 30 hips from 24 patients who underwent THA using the posterior approach with Exeter femoral components, and 30 hips from 24 patients with Accolade II components. Both groups did not differ significantly in age, sex, BMI, bone quality, or disease. Two weeks postoperatively, CT images were obtained to measure acetabular and femoral component anteversion.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 2 | Pages 79 - 86
1 Feb 2024
Sato R Hamada H Uemura K Takashima K Ando W Takao M Saito M Sugano N


This study aimed to investigate the incidence of ≥ 5 mm asymmetry in lower and whole leg lengths (LLs) in patients with unilateral osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH-OA) and primary hip osteoarthritis (PHOA), and the relationship between lower and whole LL asymmetries and femoral length asymmetry.


In total, 116 patients who underwent unilateral total hip arthroplasty were included in this study. Of these, 93 had DDH-OA and 23 had PHOA. Patients with DDH-OA were categorized into three groups: Crowe grade I, II/III, and IV. Anatomical femoral length, femoral length greater trochanter (GT), femoral length lesser trochanter (LT), tibial length, foot height, lower LL, and whole LL were evaluated using preoperative CT data of the whole leg in the supine position. Asymmetry was evaluated in the Crowe I, II/III, IV, and PHOA groups.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 9 | Pages 590 - 597
20 Sep 2023
Uemura K Otake Y Takashima K Hamada H Imagama T Takao M Sakai T Sato Y Okada S Sugano N


This study aimed to develop and validate a fully automated system that quantifies proximal femoral bone mineral density (BMD) from CT images.


The study analyzed 978 pairs of hip CT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of the proximal femur (DXA-BMD) collected from three institutions. From the CT images, the femur and a calibration phantom were automatically segmented using previously trained deep-learning models. The Hounsfield units of each voxel were converted into density (mg/cm3). Then, a deep-learning model trained by manual landmark selection of 315 cases was developed to select the landmarks at the proximal femur to rotate the CT volume to the neutral position. Finally, the CT volume of the femur was projected onto the coronal plane, and the areal BMD of the proximal femur (CT-aBMD) was quantified. CT-aBMD correlated to DXA-BMD, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis quantified the accuracy in diagnosing osteoporosis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1656 - 1661
1 Nov 2021
Iwasa M Ando W Uemura K Hamada H Takao M Sugano N


Pelvic incidence (PI) is considered an important anatomical parameter for determining the sagittal balance of the spine. The contribution of an abnormal PI to hip osteoarthritis (OA) remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between PI and hip OA, and the difference in PI between hip OA without anatomical abnormalities (primary OA) and hip OA with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH-OA).


In this study, 100 patients each of primary OA, DDH-OA, and control subjects with no history of hip disease were included. CT images were used to measure PI, sagittal femoral head coverage, α angle, and acetabular anteversion. PI was also subdivided into three categories: high PI (larger than 64.0°), medium PI (42.0° to 64.0°), and low PI (less than 42.0°). The anterior centre edge angles, posterior centre edge angles, and total sagittal femoral head coverage were measured. The correlations between PI and sagittal femoral head coverage, α angle, and acetabular anteversion were examined.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 3 | Pages 297 - 302
1 Mar 2019
Tamura K Takao M Hamada H Ando W Sakai T Sugano N


The aim of this study was to examine whether hips with unilateral osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) have significant asymmetry in femoral length, and to determine potential related factors.

Patients and Methods

We enrolled 90 patients (82 female, eight male) with DDH showing unilateral OA changes, and 43 healthy volunteers (26 female, 17 male) as controls. The mean age was 61.8 years (39 to 93) for the DDH groups, and 71.2 years (57 to 84) for the control group. Using a CT-based coordinate measurement system, we evaluated the following vertical distances: top of the greater trochanter to the knee centre (femoral length GT), most medial prominence of the lesser trochanter to the knee centre (femoral length LT), and top of the greater trochanter to the medial prominence of the lesser trochanter (intertrochanteric distance), along with assessments of femoral neck anteversion and neck shaft angle.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 5 | Pages 580 - 589
1 May 2014
Nakahara I Takao M Sakai T Miki H Nishii T Sugano N

To confirm whether developmental dysplasia of the hip has a risk of hip impingement, we analysed maximum ranges of movement to the point of bony impingement, and impingement location using three-dimensional (3D) surface models of the pelvis and femur in combination with 3D morphology of the hip joint using computer-assisted methods. Results of computed tomography were examined for 52 hip joints with DDH and 73 normal healthy hip joints. DDH shows larger maximum extension (p = 0.001) and internal rotation at 90° flexion (p < 0.001). Similar maximum flexion (p = 0.835) and external rotation (p = 0.713) were observed between groups, while high rates of extra-articular impingement were noticed in these directions in DDH (p < 0.001). Smaller cranial acetabular anteversion (p = 0.048), centre-edge angles (p < 0.001), a circumferentially shallower acetabulum, larger femoral neck anteversion (p < 0.001), and larger alpha angle were identified in DDH. Risk of anterior impingement in retroverted DDH hips is similar to that in retroverted normal hips in excessive adduction but minimal in less adduction. These findings might be borne in mind when considering the possibility of extra-articular posterior impingement in DDH being a source of pain, particularly for patients with a highly anteverted femoral neck.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:580–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1320 - 1325
1 Oct 2013
Tamura S Nishii T Takao M Sakai T Yoshikawa H Sugano N

We investigated differences in the location and mode of labral tears between dysplastic hips and hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). We also investigated the relationship between labral tear and adjacent cartilage damage. We retrospectively studied 72 symptomatic hips (in 68 patients: 19 men and 49 women) with radiological evidence of dysplasia or FAI on high-resolution CT arthrography. The incidence and location of labral tears and modes of tear associated with the base of the labrum (Mode 1) or body of the labrum (Mode 2) were compared among FAI, mildly dysplastic and severely dysplastic hips. The locations predominantly involved with labral tears were different in FAI and mild dysplastic hips (anterior and anterosuperior zones) and in severely dysplastic hips (anterosuperior and superior zones) around the acetabulum. Significant differences were observed in the prevalence of Mode 1 versus Mode 2 tears in FAI hips (72% (n = 13) vs 28% (n = 5)) and severe dysplastic hips (25% (n = 2) vs 75% (n = 6)). The frequency of cartilage damage adjacent to Mode 1 tears was significantly higher (42% (n = 14)) than that adjacent to Mode 2 tears (14% (n = 3)).

Hip pathology is significantly related to the locations and modes of labral tears. Mode 1 tears may be a risk factor for the development of adjacent acetabular cartilage damage.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1320–5.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1215 - 1221
1 Sep 2010
Sakai T Ohzono K Nishii T Miki H Takao M Sugano N

The long-term results of grafting with hydroxyapatite granules for acetabular deficiency in revision total hip replacement are not well known. We have evaluated the results of revision using a modular cup with hydroxyapatite grafting for Paprosky type 2 and 3 acetabular defects at a minimum of ten years’ follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed 49 acetabular revisions at a mean of 135 months (120 to 178). There was one type 2B, ten 2C, 28 3A and ten 3B hips. With loosening as the endpoint, the survival rate was 74.2% (95% confidence interval 58.3 to 90.1). Radiologically, four of the type 3A hips (14%) and six of the type 3B hips (60%) showed aseptic loosening with collapse of the hydroxyapatite layer, whereas no loosening occurred in type 2 hips. There was consolidation of the hydroxyapatite layer in 33 hips (66%). Loosening was detected in nine of 29 hips (31%) without cement and in one of 20 hips (5%) with cement (p = 0.03, Fisher’s exact probability test). The linear wear and annual wear rate did not correlate with loosening.

These results suggest that the long-term results of hydroxyapatite grafting with cement for type 2 and 3A hips are encouraging.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 6 | Pages 770 - 776
1 Jun 2010
Sakai T Ohzono K Nishii T Miki H Takao M Sugano N

We compared a modular neck system with a non-modular system in a cementless anatomical total hip replacement (THR). Each group consisted of 74 hips with developmental hip dysplasia. Both groups had the same cementless acetabular component and the same articulation, which consisted of a conventional polyethylene liner and a 28 mm alumina head. The mean follow-up was 14.5 years (13 to 15), at which point there were significant differences in the mean total Harris hip score (modular/non-modular: 98.6 (64 to 100)/93.8 (68 to 100)), the mean range of abduction (32° (15° to 40°)/28 (0° to 40°)), use of a 10° elevated liner (31%/100%), the incidence of osteolysis (27%/79.7%) and the incidence of equal leg lengths (≥ 6 mm, 92%/61%). There was no disassociation or fracture of the modular neck.

The modular system reduces the need for an elevated liner, thereby reducing the incidence of osteolysis. It gives a better range of movement and allows the surgeon to make an accurate adjustment of leg length.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 4 | Pages 455 - 460
1 Apr 2007
Sugano N Nishii T Miki H Yoshikawa H Sato Y Tamura S

We have developed a CT-based navigation system using infrared light-emitting diode markers and an optical camera. We used this system to perform cementless total hip replacement using a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing couple in 53 patients (60 hips) between 1998 and 2001. We reviewed 52 patients (59 hips) at a mean of six years (5 to 8) postoperatively. The mid-term results of total hip replacement using navigation were compared with those of 91 patients (111 hips) who underwent this procedure using the same implants, during the same period, without navigation. There were no significant differences in age, gender, diagnosis, height, weight, body mass index, or pre-operative clinical score between the two groups. The operation time was significantly longer where navigation was used, but there was no significant difference in blood loss or navigation-related complications. With navigation, the acetabular components were placed within the safe zone defined by Lewinnek, while without, 31 of the 111 components were placed outside this zone. There was no significant difference in the Merle d’Aubigne and Postel hip score at the final follow-up. However, hips treated without navigation had a higher rate of dislocation. Revision was performed in two cases undertaken without navigation, one for aseptic acetabular loosening and one for fracture of a ceramic liner, both of which showed evidence of neck impingement on the liner. A further five cases undertaken without navigation showed erosion of the posterior aspect of the neck of the femoral component on the lateral radiographs. These seven impingement-related mechanical problems correlated with malorientation of the acetabular component. There were no such mechanical problems in the navigated group.

We conclude that CT-based navigation increased the precision of orientation of the acetabular component and control of limb length in total hip replacement, without navigation-related complications. It also reduced the rate of dislocation and mechanical problems related to impingement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 2 | Pages 185 - 189
1 Mar 2004
Kishida Y Sugano N Nishii T Miki H Yamaguchi K Yoshikawa H

We investigated the effect of the Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR) arthroplasty on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur. A comparative study was carried out on 26 hips in 25 patients. Group A consisted of 13 patients (13 hips) who had undergone resurfacing hip arthroplasty with the BHR system and group B of 12 patients (13 hips) who had had cementless total hip arthroplasty with a proximal circumferential plasma-spray titanium-coated anatomic Ti6A14V stem. Patients were matched for gender, state of disease and age at the time of surgery. The periprosthetic BMD of the femur was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiomentry of the Gruen zones at two years in patients in groups A and B.

The median values of the BMD in zones 1 and 7 were 99% and 111%, respectively. The post-operative loss of the BMD in the proximal femur was significantly greater in group B than in group A. These findings show that the BHR system preserves the bone stock of the proximal femur after surgery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 7 | Pages 996 - 1000
1 Sep 2001
Haraguchi K Sugano N Nishii T Miki H Oka K Yoshikawa H

We report two cases of surface deterioration of a zirconia ceramic femoral head associated with phase transformation after total hip arthroplasty. One head was retrieved at revision due to recurrent dislocation after six years and the other because of failure of the locking mechanism of the polyethylene liner after three years. The monoclinic content of the zirconia ceramics rose from 1% to about 30% on the surface of the heads. SEM revealed numerous craters indicating extraction of the zirconia ceramics at the surface. Surface roughness increased from an initial value of 0.006 3m up to 0.12 3m. This is the first report to show that phase transformation of zirconia ceramics causes deterioration of the surface roughness of the head in vivo after total hip arthroplasty.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 5 | Pages 751 - 759
1 Jul 2001
Sato M Sugano N Ohzono K Nomura S Kitamura Y Tsukamoto Y Ogawa S

Using in situ hybridisation and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) reaction in rats with osteonecrosis of the femoral head we have studied the effect of ischaemia on the gene expression of the stress proteins oxygen-regulated protein 150 (ORP150) and haemoxygenase 1 (HO1) and the death mechanism of the cells involved in osteonecrosis. Both ORP150 and HO1 have been reported to have important roles in the successful adaptation to oxygen deprivation.

ORP150 and HO1 mRNA expression was induced by ischaemia in osteoblasts and osteocytes. In proliferative chondrocytes, these signals were detected constitutively. During the development of ischaemic osteonecrosis, the mechanism of cell death was apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation and the presence of apoptotic bodies in osteocytes, chondrocytes and bone-marrow cells. After the initial ischaemic event, expression of ORP150 and HO1 mRNA, the TUNEL-positive reaction and empty lacunae were found sequentially. These findings were exclusive and may be considered to be markers for each stage in the development of osteonecrosis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 4 | Pages 590 - 595
1 Jul 1999
Sugano N Kubo T Takaoka K Ohzono K Hotokebuchi T Matsumoto T Igarashi H Ninomiya S

Six major and seven minor diagnostic criteria have been developed by the Japanese Investigation Committee for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). We have carried out a multicentre study to clarify these.

We studied prospectively 277 hips in 222 patients, from six hospitals, who had ONFH and other hip pathology and from whom histological material was available. We identified five criteria with high specificity: 1) collapse of the femoral head without narrowing of the joint space or acetabular abnormality on radiographs, including the crescent sign; 2) demarcating sclerosis in the femoral head without narrowing or acetabular abnormality; 3) a ‘cold-in-hot’ appearance on the bone scan; 4) a low-intensity band on T1-weighted images (band pattern); and 5) evidence of trabecular and marrow necrosis on histological examination. With any combination of two of these criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis were 91% and 99%, respectively.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 4 | Pages 711 - 719
1 Jul 1998
Sugano N Noble PC Kamaric E Salama JK Ochi T Tullos HS

We studied the morphometry of 35 femora from 31 female patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and another 15 from 15 age- and sex-matched control patients using CT and three-dimensional computer reconstruction models. According to the classification of Crowe et al 15 of the dysplastic hips were graded as class I (less than 50% subluxation), ten as class II/III (50% to 100% subluxation) and ten as class IV (more than 100% subluxation).

The femora with DDH had 10 to 14° more anteversion than the control group independent of the degree of subluxation of the hip. In even the most mildly dysplastic joints, the femur had a smaller and more anteverted canal than the normal control. With increased subluxation, additional abnormalities were observed in the size and position of the femoral head. Femora from dislocated joints had a short, anteverted neck associated with a smaller, narrower, and straighter canal than femora of classes I and II/III or the normal control group.

We suggest that when total hip replacement is performed in the patient with DDH, the femoral prosthesis should be chosen on the basis of the severity of the subluxation and the degree of anteversion of each individual femur.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 3 | Pages 404 - 410
1 May 1998
Matsui M Nakata K Masuhara K Ohzono K Sugano N Ochi T

We implanted 51 Metal-Cancellous Cementless Lübeck (MCCL) prostheses into 45 patients with dysplastic hips and followed 49 hips (96.1%) for five to nine years. One had needed revision for stem fracture and one for infection; the clinical outcome of the other 47 hips was assessed using the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel hip score.

All hips were either excellent (63%) or good (37%). Three patients (6%) had mild thigh pain at six months, but this had settled within two years. Serial radiographs showed stable fixation with bone ingrowth in all hips, with increased density of the cancellous bone in contact with the implant and some trabecular ingrowth. There was early varus shift of the stem in one hip, but this stabilised in three months. Osteolysis of the femoral cortex was seen in one hip at seven years after surgery, and mild bone resorption due to stress shielding in 31 (63%). Acetabular bone grafting with autogenous bone from the femoral head gave successful support to the socket in 13 hips.

The MCCL prosthesis gave satisfactory mid-term results in patients with osteoarthritis secondary to hip dysplasia.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 2 | Pages 220 - 224
1 Mar 1997
Matsui M Masuhara K Nakata K Nishii T Sugano N Ochi T

We performed a modified, rotational acetabular osteotomy through a lateral transtrochanteric approach on 19 hips in 18 patients with a dysplastic joint. Six hips in six patients were operated on using the original approach. The mean age at operation was 28 years (14 to 54) and the mean period of follow-up 2.3 years (1 to 4.4).

Clinical evaluation using the Merle d’Aubigné score showed excellent or good results in 76%. Radiologically, 15 hips showed good acetabular remodelling and no signs of progressive osteoarthritis. In ten hips (40%) there was chondrolysis and collapse of the transferred acetabulum or both within one year, although this gave only mild pain in some patients. Factors which were significantly associated with the grade of outcome included age at the time of operation, the thickness of the transferred acetabulum, failure to use a bone graft, and a transtrochanteric approach.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 2 | Pages 253 - 257
1 Mar 1996
Sugano N Masuhara K Nakamura N Ochi T Hirooka A Hayami Y

We have carried out a prospective study of 17 patients (14 women, 3 men) of mean age 48 years (21 to 76) with transcervical fractures of the femur using MRI to detect early evidence of avascular necrosis of the head.

Two fractures were Garden stage I, 12 stage II, and three stage III. We performed internal fixation under radiological control at a mean of five days (2 to 15) after injury using a titanium cannulated cancellous screw or a titanium compression hip screw. MRI was performed at one, six and 12 months and then yearly after operation. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained by a spin-echo technique. The duration of follow-up of patients who did not subsequently require replacement of the head of the femur was from 2 to 5 years (mean 3.2).

One month after operation eight of the 17 hips showed a band of low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images indicating lesions in the femoral head away from the fracture line. These were of three types: type I was a small infarct at the superolateral region of the femoral head and was seen in three hips; type II was a shallow lesion from the superolateral region to the fovea of the femoral head (three hips); and type III was a large lesion occupying most of the femoral head (two hips). No further changes were seen in the MRI after six months from operation. Collapse of the femoral head did not occur in the three hips with type-I lesions, but two of the three type-II hips and both type-III hips subsequently collapsed. At the final follow-up the three hips with a type-I lesion and one with a type-II were still asymptomatic but radiography showed sclerosis in the femoral head corresponding to the MRI lesions. The nine hips which showed no changes on MRI at one month had no abnormal findings on physical examination, radiography or MRI at final follow-up.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 4 | Pages 548 - 556
1 Jul 1995
Sugano N Nishii T Nakata K Masuhara K Takaoka K

From 1981 to 1983, we implanted Bioceram type-4 and type-5 prostheses in 61 hips in 54 patients with osteoarthritis secondary to acetabular dysplasia, congenital subluxation, or congenital dislocation of the hip. Fifty-seven hips in 50 patients were followed for a mean of 11.1 years (10 to 13). The mean age of the patients at operation was 53 years (31 to 70). Functional evaluation using the Merle d'Aubigne and Postel hip score showed a 77% success rate. Radiological loosening occurred in three femoral (5%) and 16 acetabular components (28%). Autologous femoral head grafts were used in 18 hips and became incorporated, giving mechanical support to the socket except for one which occupied a large weight-bearing area and eventually collapsed. The mean polyethylene wear was 1.1 mm (0 to 3.6) and the mean wear rate was 0.10 mm/year (0 to 0.31). A high rate of wear correlated with calcar resorption (p > 0.002) but not with acetabular loosening. There was no breakage of a ceramic head. Study of the ceramic heads and polyethylene sockets retrieved after ten years showed excellent surface roughness, sphericity, and bending strength for the heads but scratches and voids were seen on the sockets.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 75-B, Issue 2 | Pages 222 - 227
1 Mar 1993
Anwar M Sugano N Matsui M Takaoka K Ono K

We performed Kawamura's dome osteotomy of the pelvis, with simultaneous distal transfer of the greater trochanter on 101 hips in 91 patients with osteoarthritis secondary to hip dysplasia. The mean age at operation was 30 years (15 to 55), and follow-up was for a mean of 8.3 years (5 to 14). Clinical evaluation using the Merle d'Aubigne score showed 92% excellent or good results. Radiologically, 91 hips had good acetabular remodelling and showed no signs of progression of osteoarthritis. In ten hips the osteoarthritic process progressed despite the osteotomy and six of these eventually underwent total hip replacement. Factors which were significantly associated with a poor outcome included an advanced stage of osteoarthritis, valgus deformity of the proximal femur, old age at the time of operation and postoperative persistence of abductor insufficiency.