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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 1 | Pages 50 - 55
1 Jan 2018
Kono K Tomita T Futai K Yamazaki T Tanaka S Yoshikawa H Sugamoto K


In Asia and the Middle-East, people often flex their knees deeply in order to perform activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to investigate the 3D kinematics of normal knees during high-flexion activities. Our hypothesis was that the femorotibial rotation, varus-valgus angle, translations, and kinematic pathway of normal knees during high-flexion activities, varied according to activity.

Materials and Methods

We investigated the in vivo kinematics of eight normal knees in four male volunteers (mean age 41.8 years; 37 to 53) using 2D and 3D registration technique, and modelled the knees with a computer aided design program. Each subject squatted, kneeled, and sat cross-legged. We evaluated the femoral rotation and varus-valgus angle relative to the tibia and anteroposterior translation of the medial and lateral side, using the transepicodylar axis as our femoral reference relative to the perpendicular projection on to the tibial plateau. This method evaluates the femur medially from what has elsewhere been described as the extension facet centre, and differs from the method classically applied.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 2 | Pages 237 - 241
1 Feb 2014
Miyake J Shimada K Oka K Tanaka H Sugamoto K Yoshikawa H Murase T

We retrospectively assessed the value of identifying impinging osteophytes using dynamic computer simulation of CT scans of the elbow in assisting their arthroscopic removal in patients with osteoarthritis of the elbow. A total of 20 patients were treated (19 men and one woman, mean age 38 years (19 to 55)) and followed for a mean of 25 months (24 to 29). We located the impinging osteophytes dynamically using computerised three-dimensional models of the elbow based on CT data in three positions of flexion of the elbow. These were then removed arthroscopically and a capsular release was performed.

The mean loss of extension improved from 23° (10° to 45°) pre-operatively to 9° (0° to 25°) post-operatively, and the mean flexion improved from 121° (80° to 140°) pre-operatively to 130° (110° to 145°) post-operatively. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score improved from 62 (30 to 85) to 95 (70 to 100) post-operatively. All patients had pain in the elbow pre-operatively which disappeared or decreased post-operatively. According to their Mayo scores, 14 patients had an excellent clinical outcome and six a good outcome; 15 were very satisfied and five were satisfied with their post-operative outcome.

We recommend this technique in the surgical management of patients with osteoarthritis of the elbow.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:237–41.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 6 | Pages 752 - 760
1 Jun 2007
Yamada Y Toritsuka Y Horibe S Sugamoto K Yoshikawa H Shino K

We used three-dimensional movement analysis by computer modelling of knee flexion from 0° to 50° in 14 knees in 12 patients with recurrent patellar dislocation and in 15 knees in ten normal control subjects to compare the in vivo three-dimensional movement of the patella. Flexion, tilt and spin of the patella were described in terms of rotation angles from 0°. The location of the patella and the tibial tubercle were evaluated using parameters expressed as percentage patellar shift and percentage tubercle shift. Patellar inclination to the femur was also measured and patellofemoral contact was qualitatively and quantitatively analysed.

The patients had greater values of spin from 20° to 50°, while there were no statistically significant differences in flexion and tilt. The patients also had greater percentage patellar shift from 0° to 50°, percentage tubercle shift at 0° and 10° and patellar inclination from 0° to 50° with a smaller oval-shaped contact area from 20° to 50° moving downwards on the lateral facet.

Patellar movement analysis using a three-dimensional computer model is useful to clearly demonstrate differences between patients with recurrent dislocation of the patella and normal control subjects.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 6 | Pages 746 - 751
1 Jun 2007
Yamada Y Toritsuka Y Yoshikawa H Sugamoto K Horibe S Shino K

We investigated the three-dimensional morphological differences of the articular surface of the femoral trochlea in patients with recurrent dislocation of the patella and a normal control group using three-dimensional computer models.

There were 12 patients (12 knees) and ten control subjects (ten knees). Three-dimensional computer models of the femur, including the articular cartilage, were created. Evaluation was performed on the shape of the articular surface, focused on its convexity, and the proximal and mediolateral distribution of the articular cartilage of the femoral trochlea. The extent of any convexity, and the proximal distribution of the articular cartilage, expressed as the height, were shown by the angles about the transepicondylar axis. The mediolateral distribution of the articular cartilage was assessed by the location of the medial and lateral borders of the articular cartilage.

The mean extent of convexity was 24.9° sd 6.7° for patients and 11.9° sd 3.6° for the control group (p < 0.001). The mean height of the articular cartilage was 91.3° sd 8.3° for the patients and 83.3° sd 7.7° for the control group (p = 0.03), suggesting a wider convex trochlea in the patients with recurrent dislocation of the patella caused by the proximally-extended convex area. The lateral border of the articular cartilage of the trochlea in the patients was more laterally located than in the control group.

Our findings therefore quantitatively demonstrated differences in the shape and distribution of the articular cartilage on the femoral trochlea between patients with dislocation of the patella and normal subjects.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 4 | Pages 490 - 494
1 Apr 2007
Arimitsu S Murase T Hashimoto J Oka K Sugamoto K Yoshikawa H Moritomo H

We have measured the three-dimensional patterns of carpal deformity in 20 wrists in 20 rheumatoid patients in which the carpal bones were shifted ulnarwards on plain radiography. Three-dimensional bone models of the carpus and radius were created by computerised tomography with the wrist in the neutral position. The location of the centroids and rotational angle of each carpal bone relative to the radius were calculated and compared with those of ten normal wrists.

In the radiocarpal joint, the proximal row was flexed and the centroids of all carpal bones translocated in an ulnar, proximal and volar direction with loss of congruity. In the midcarpal joint, the distal row was extended and congruity generally well preserved. These findings may facilitate more positive use of radiocarpal fusion alone for the deformed rheumatoid wrist.