header advert
Results 1 - 20 of 33
Results per page:
The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 511 - 517
1 May 2023
Petrie MJ Panchani S Al-Einzy M Partridge D Harrison TP Stockley I


The duration of systemic antibiotic treatment following first-stage revision surgery for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is contentious. Our philosophy is to perform an aggressive debridement, and to use a high local concentration of targeted antibiotics in cement beads and systemic prophylactic antibiotics alone. The aim of this study was to assess the success of this philosophy in the management of PJI of the hip using our two-stage protocol.


The study involved a retrospective review of our prospectively collected database from which we identified all patients who underwent an intended two-stage revision for PJI of the hip. All patients had a diagnosis of PJI according to the major criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) 2013, a minimum five-year follow-up, and were assessed using the MSIS working group outcome-reporting tool. The outcomes were grouped into ‘successful’ or ‘unsuccessful’.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 3 | Pages 522 - 529
1 Mar 2021
Nichol T Callaghan J Townsend R Stockley I Hatton PV Le Maitre C Smith TJ Akid R


The aim of this study was to develop a single-layer hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel coating that is capable of a controlled antibiotic release for cementless hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium orthopaedic prostheses.


Coatings containing gentamicin at a concentration of 1.25% weight/volume (wt/vol), similar to that found in commercially available antibiotic-loaded bone cement, were prepared and tested in the laboratory for: kinetics of antibiotic release; activity against planktonic and biofilm bacterial cultures; biocompatibility with cultured mammalian cells; and physical bonding to the material (n = 3 in all tests). The sol-gel coatings and controls were then tested in vivo in a small animal healing model (four materials tested; n = 6 per material), and applied to the surface of commercially pure HA-coated titanium rods.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1405 - 1406
1 Nov 2018
Haddad FS Oussedik S Meek RMD Konan S Stockley I Gant V

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 6 | Pages 749 - 754
1 Jun 2018
Partridge DG Winnard C Townsend R Cooper R Stockley I


The aim of this study was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of culture of joint aspirate with and without saline injection-reaspiration.

Patients and Methods

This is a retrospective analysis of 580 hip and knee aspirations in patients who were deemed to have a moderate to high risk of infection, and who subsequently proceeded to revision arthroplasty over a period of 12 years. It was carried out at a large quaternary referral centre where preoperative aspiration is routine.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1153 - 1156
1 Sep 2017
Harrison PL Harrison T Stockley I Smith TJ


Tantalum (Ta) trabecular metal components are increasingly used to reconstruct major bone defects in revision arthroplasty surgery. It is known that some metals such as silver have antibacterial properties. Recent reports have raised the question regarding whether Ta components are protective against infection in revision surgery. This laboratory study aimed to establish whether Ta has intrinsic antibacterial properties against planktonic bacteria, or the ability to inhibit biofilm formation.

Materials and Methods

Equal-sized pieces of Ta and titanium (Ti) acetabular components were sterilised and incubated with a low dose inoculum of either Staphylococcus (S.) aureus or S. epidermidis for 24 hours. After serial dilution, colony forming units (cfu) were quantified on Mueller-Hinton agar plates. In order to establish whether biofilms formed to a greater extent on one material than the other, these Ta and Ti pieces were then washed twice, sonicated and washed again to remove loosely adhered planktonic bacteria. They were then re-incubated for 24 hours prior to quantifying the number of cfu. All experiments were performed in triplicate.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 1 | Pages 73 - 77
1 Jan 2017
Frew NM Cannon T Nichol T Smith TJ Stockley I


Vancomycin is commonly added to acrylic bone cement during revision arthroplasty surgery. Proprietary cement preparations containing vancomycin are available, but are significantly more expensive. We investigated whether the elution of antibiotic from ‘home-made’ cement containing vancomycin was comparable with more expensive commercially available vancomycin impregnated cement.

Materials and Methods

A total of 18 cement discs containing either proprietary CopalG+V; or ‘home-made’ CopalR+G with vancomycin added by hand, were made. Each disc contained the same amount of antibiotic (0.5 g gentamycin, 2 g vancomycin) and was immersed in ammonium acetate buffer in a sealed container. Fluid from each container was sampled at eight time points over a two-week period. The concentrations of gentamicin and vancomycin in the fluid were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1455 - 1456
1 Nov 2012
Oussedik S Gould K Stockley I Haddad FS

Peri-prosthetic infection remains a leading cause of revision surgery. Recent publications from the American Musculoskeletal Infection Society have sought to establish a definition of peri-prosthetic infection based on clinical findings and laboratory investigations. The limitations of their approach are discussed and an alternative definition is proposed, which it is felt may better reflect the uncertainties encountered in clinical practice.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 6 | Pages 844 - 846
1 Jun 2011
Sarasin SM Karthikeyan R Skinner P Nassef A Stockley I

Intrapelvic migration of the acetabular component of a total hip replacement, with severe acetabular destruction making reconstruction impossible, is very rare. We present a patient in whom the component was removed using a laparotomy and a transperitoneal approach with subsequent salvage using a saddle prosthesis and a total femoral replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 6 | Pages 856 - 861
1 Jun 2010
Emms NW Stockley I Hamer AJ Wilkinson JM

Between 1988 and 1998 we implanted 318 total hip replacements (THRs) in 287 patients using the Plasmacup (B. Braun Ltd, Sheffield, United Kingdom) and a conventional metal-on-polyethylene articulation. The main indications for THR were primary or secondary osteoarthritis.

At follow-up after a mean 11.6 years (7.6 to 18.4) 17 patients had died and 20 could not be traced leaving a final series of 280 THRs in 250 patients. There were 62 revisions (22.1%) in 59 patients. A total of 43 acetabular shells (15.4%) had been revised and 13 (4.6%) had undergone exchange of the liner. The most frequent indications for revision were osteolysis and aseptic loosening, followed by polyethylene wear. The mean Kaplan-Meier survival of the Plasmacup was 91% at ten years and 58% at 14 years. Osteolysis was found around 36 (17.1%) of the 211 surviving shells. The median annual rate of linear wear in the surviving shells was 0.12 mm/year and 0.25 mm/year in those which had been revised (p < 0.001). Polyethylene wear was a strong independent risk factor for osteolysis and aseptic loosening. The percentage of patients with osteolysis increased proportionately with each quintile of wear-rate.

There is a high late rate of failure of the Plasmacup. Patients with the combination of this prosthesis and bearing should be closely monitored after ten years.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1419 - 1423
1 Nov 2009
Emms NW Buckley SC Stockley I Hamer AJ Kerry RM

Between 1990 and 2000, 123 hips in 110 patients were reconstructed for aseptic loosening using impaction bone grafting with frozen, irradiated, morsellised femoral heads and cemented acetabular components. This series was reported previously at a mean follow-up of five years. We have extended this follow-up and now describe the outcome of 86 hips in 74 patients at a mean of ten years. There have been 19 revisions, comprising nine for infection, seven for aseptic loosening and three for dislocation. In surviving acetabular reconstructions, union of the graft had occurred in 64 of 67 hips (95.5%).

Survival analysis for all indications at ten years was 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 68 to 89) and 71.3% (95% CI 58 to 84) at 15 years.

Acetabular reconstruction using irradiated allograft and a cemented acetabular component is an effective method of reconstruction, providing results in the medium- to long-term comparable with those of reported series where non-irradiated freshly-frozen bone was used.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 5 | Pages 643 - 647
1 May 2008
Bridgens J Davies S Tilley L Norman P Stockley I

Bone cements produced by different manufacturers vary in their mechanical properties and antibiotic elution characteristics. Small changes in the formulation of a bone cement, which may not be apparent to surgeons, can also affect these properties. The supplier of Palacos bone cement with added gentamicin changed in 2005. We carried out a study to examine the mechanical characteristics and antibiotic elution of Schering-Plough Palacos, Heraeus Palacos and Depuy CMW Smartset bone cements.

Both Heraeus Palacos and Smartset bone cements performed significantly better than Schering-Plough Palacos in terms of mechanical characteristics, with and without additional vancomycin (p < 0.001). All cements show a deterioration in flexural strength with increasing addition of vancomycin, albeit staying above ISO minimum levels. Both Heraeus Palacos and Smartset elute significantly more gentamicin cumulatively than Schering-Plough Palacos. Smartset elutes significantly more vancomycin cumulatively than Heraeus Palacos.

The improved antibiotic elution characteristics of Smartset and Heraeus Palacos are not associated with a deterioration in mechanical properties. Although marketed as the ‘original’ Palacos, Heraeus Palacos has significantly altered mechanical and antibiotic elution characteristics compared with the most commonly-used previous version.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 5 | Pages 574 - 578
1 May 2008
Carroll FA Hoad-Reddick DA Kerry RM Stockley I

Between 1980 and 2000, 63 support rings were used in the management of acetabular deficiency in a series of 60 patients, with a mean follow-up of 8.75 years (2 months to 23.8 years). There was a minimum five-year follow-up for successful reconstructions. The indication for revision surgery was aseptic loosening in 30 cases and infection in 33. All cases were Paprosky III defects; IIIA in 33 patients (52.4%) and IIIB in 30 (47.6%), including four with pelvic dissociation. A total of 26 patients (43.3%) have died since surgery, and 34 (56.7%) remain under clinical review. With acetabular revision for infection or aseptic loosening as the definition of failure, we report success in 53 (84%) of the reconstructions. A total of 12 failures (19%) required further surgery, four (6.3%) for aseptic loosening of the acetabular construct, six (9.5%) for recurrent infection and two (3.2%) for recurrent dislocation requiring captive components. Complications, seen in 11 patients (18.3%), included six femoral or sciatic neuropraxias which all resolved, one grade III heterotopic ossification, one on-table acetabular revision for instability, and three early post-operative dislocations managed by manipulation under anaesthesia, with no further instability.

We recommend support rings and morcellised bone graft for significant acetabular bone deficiency that cannot be reconstructed using mesh.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 2 | Pages 145 - 148
1 Feb 2008
Stockley I Mockford BJ Hoad-Reddick A Norman P

We present a series of 114 patients with microbiologically-proven chronically-infected total hip replacement, treated between 1991 and 2004 by a two-stage exchange procedure with antibiotic-loaded cement, but without the use of a prolonged course of antibiotic therapy. The mean follow-up for all patients was 74 months (2 to 175) with all surviving patients having a minimum follow-up of two years. Infection was successfully eradicated in 100 patients (87.7%), a rate which is similar to that reported by others, but where prolonged adjuvant antibiotic therapy has been used. Using the technique described, a prolonged course of systemic antibiotics does not appear to be essential and the high cost of the administration of antibiotics can be avoided.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 1 | Pages 107 - 108
1 Jan 2007
Robinson KP Carroll FA Bull MJ McClelland M Stockley I

We report a case of local compression-induced transient femoral nerve palsy in a 46-year-old man. He had previously undergone surgical release of the soft tissues anterior to both hip joints because of contractures following spinal injury. An MRI scan confirmed a synovial cyst originating from the left hip joint, lying adjacent to the femoral nerve. The cyst expanded on standing, causing a transient femoral nerve palsy. The symptoms resolved after excision of the cyst.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 1 | Pages 32 - 33
1 Jan 2007
Konangamparambath S Wilkinson JM Cleveland T Stockley I

Bleeding is a major complication of revision total hip replacement. We report a case where the inflated balloon of a urinary catheter was used to temporarily control intrapelvic bleeding from the superior gluteal artery, while definitive measures for endovascular embolisation were made.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1309 - 1315
1 Oct 2006
Shetty N Hamer AJ Stockley I Eastell R Willkinson JM

Bisphosphonates reduce peri-prosthetic bone loss in the short term after total hip replacement but the mid- and longer term effects are not known. The aims of this randomised trial were to examine the effect of a single dose of 90 mg of pamidronate on the clinical and radiological outcome and peri-prosthetic bone mineral density in 50 patients (56 hips) over a five-year period, following total hip replacement.

At five years, 37 patients (42 hips) returned for assessment. The Harris hip scores were similar in the pamidronate and placebo groups throughout the study. Also at five years, four patients, two from each group had osteolytic lesions on plain radiography. These were located around the acetabular component in three patients and in the femoral calcar in one. The femoral and acetabular peri-prosthetic bone mineral density in the pamidronate group and the control group was similar at five years.

Pamidronate given as a single post-operative dose does not appear to influence the clinical outcome or prevent the development of osteolytic lesions at five years after total hip replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 4 | Pages 455 - 459
1 Apr 2006
Shetty NR Hamer AJ Kerry RM Stockley I Eastell R Wilkinson JM

The aims of this study were to examine the repeatability of measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) around a cemented polyethylene Charnley acetabular component using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and to determine the longitudinal pattern of change in BMD during the first 24 months after surgery.

The precision of measurements of BMD in 19 subjects ranged from 7.7% to 10.8% between regions, using a four-region-of-interest model. A longitudinal study of 27 patients demonstrated a transient decrease in net pelvic BMD during the first 12 months, which recovered to baseline at 24 months. The BMD in the region medial to the dome of the component reduced by between 7% and 10% during the first three months, but recovered to approximately baseline values by two years.

Changes in BMD in the pelvis around cemented acetabular components may be measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone loss after insertion of a cemented Charnley acetabular component is small, transient and occurs mainly at the medial wall of the acetabulum. After two years, bone mass returns to baseline values, with a pattern suggesting a uniform transmission of load to the acetabulum.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 3 | Pages 310 - 313
1 Mar 2005
Buckley SC Stockley I Hamer AJ Kerry RM

We report the results of the revision of 123 acetabular components for aseptic loosening treated by impaction bone grafting using frozen, morsellised, irradiated femoral heads and cemented sockets. This is the first large series using this technique to be reported. A survivorship of 88% with revision as the end-point after a mean of five years is comparable with that of other series.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 2 | Pages 171 - 174
1 Feb 2005
Hoad-Reddick DA Evans CR Norman P Stockley I

All major studies have incorporated the use of prolonged courses of parenteral or oral antibiotic therapy in the management of two-stage revision of an infected total knee arthroplasty. We present a series of 59 consecutive patients, all with microbiologically-proven deep infection of a total knee arthroplasty, in whom a prolonged course of antibiotic therapy was not routinely used. The mean follow-up was 56.4 months (24 to 114).

Of the 38 patients who underwent a staged exchange, infection was successfully eradicated in 34 (89%) but recurrent or persistent infection was present in four (11%). Our rate of cure for infection is similar to that reported elsewhere. We conclude that a prolonged course of antibiotic therapy seems not to alter the incidence of recurrent or persistent infection. The costs of the administration of antibiotics are high and such a regime may be unnecessary.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 7 | Pages 962 - 965
1 Sep 2004
Ammon P Stockley I

A two-stage procedure was carried out on 57 patients with confirmed infection in a hip replacement. Allograft bone was used in the second stage. Pathogenic organisms were identified in all patients. In stage 1, the prosthesis was removed together with infected tissue. Antibiotics were added to customised cement beads. Systemic antibiotics were not used. At the second stage, 45 of the patients had either acetabular impaction grafting, femoral impaction grafting or a combination; 12 had a massive allograft.

Eight patients suffered recurrent infection (14%), in six with the original infecting organism. The risk factors for re-infection were multiple previous procedures and highly resistant organisms. We believe that systemic antibiotic therapy should be considered for these patients. Allograft bone is shown to be a useful adjunct in most infected hip replacements with considerable loss of bone stock.