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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 8 | Pages 895 - 904
1 Aug 2023
Smith TO Dainty J Loveday DT Toms A Goldberg AJ Watts L Pennington MW Dawson J van der Meulen J MacGregor AJ


The aim of this study was to capture 12-month outcomes from a representative multicentre cohort of patients undergoing total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), describe the pattern of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) at 12 months, and identify predictors of these outcome measures.


Patients listed for a primary TAA at 19 NHS hospitals between February 2016 and October 2017 were eligible. PROMs data were collected preoperatively and at six and 12 months including: Manchester-Oxford Foot and Ankle Questionnaire (MOXFQ (foot and ankle)) and the EuroQol five-dimension five-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L). Radiological pre- and postoperative data included Kellgren-Lawrence score and implant position measurement. This was supplemented by data from the National Joint Registry through record linkage to determine: American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade at index procedure; indication for surgery, index ankle previous fracture; tibial hind foot alignment; additional surgery at the time of TAA; and implant type. Multivariate regression models assessed outcomes, and the relationship between MOXFQ and EQ-5D-5L outcomes, with patient characteristics.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 | Pages 1111 - 1118
1 Jun 2021
Dainty JR Smith TO Clark EM Whitehouse MR Price AJ MacGregor AJ


To determine the trajectories of patient reported pain and functional disability over five years following total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).


A prospective, longitudinal cohort sub-study within the National Joint Registry (NJR) was undertaken. In all, 20,089 patients who underwent primary THA and 22,489 who underwent primary TKA between 2009 and 2010 were sent Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and Oxford Knee Score (OKS) questionnaires at six months, and one, three, and five years postoperatively. OHS and OKS were disaggregated into pain and function subscales. A k-means clustering procedure assigned each patient to a longitudinal trajectory group for pain and function. Ordinal regression was used to predict trajectory group membership using baseline OHS and OKS score, age, BMI, index of multiple deprivation, sex, ethnicity, geographical location, and American Society of Anesthesiologists grade.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1160 - 1166
1 Sep 2016
Smith TO Aboelmagd T Hing CB MacGregor A


Our aim was to determine whether, based on the current literature, bariatric surgery prior to total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reduces the complication rates and improves the outcome following arthroplasty in obese patients.


A systematic literature search was undertaken of published and unpublished databases on the 5 November 2015. All papers reporting studies comparing obese patients who had undergone bariatric surgery prior to arthroplasty, or not, were included. Each study was assessed using the Downs and Black appraisal tool. A meta-analysis of risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) was performed to determine the incidence of complications including wound infection, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), revision surgery and mortality.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 4 | Pages 452 - 460
1 Apr 2016
Mahmoud SSS Pearse EO Smith TO Hing CB


The optimal management of intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck in independently mobile patients remains open to debate. Successful fixation obviates the limitations of arthroplasty for this group of patients. However, with fixation failure rates as high as 30%, the outcome of revision surgery to salvage total hip arthroplasty (THA) must be considered. We carried out a systematic review to compare the outcomes of salvage THA and primary THA for intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck.

Patients and Methods

We performed a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) compliant systematic review, using the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane libraries databases. A meta-analysis was performed where possible, and a narrative synthesis when a meta-analysis was not possible.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 6 | Pages 777 - 781
1 Jun 2011
Kalra S Smith TO Berko B Walton NP

The Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement gives good results in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the medial compartment. Previous studies have suggested that the presence of radiolucent lines (RLLs) does not reflect a poor outcome in such patients. However, the reliability and validity of this assessment have not been determined. Our aim was to assess the intra- and interobserver reliability and the sensitivity and specificity of the assessment of RLLs around both tibial and femoral components using standard radiographs.

Two reviewers assessed the radiographs of 45 patients who had loosening of the tibial or femoral component confirmed at revision surgery and compared them with those of a series of 45 asymptomatic patients matched for age and gender.

The results suggested that, using standard radiographs, tibial RLLs were 63.6% sensitive and 94.4% specific and femoral RLLs 63.9% sensitive and 72.7% specific for loosening. Overall intra- and interobserver reliability was highly variable, but zonal analysis showed that lucency at the tip of the femoral peg was significantly associated with loosening of the femoral component.

Fluoroscopically guided radiographs may improve the zonal reliability of the assessment of RLLs, but further independent and comparative studies are required. In the meantime, the innocence of the physiological RLLs detected by standard radiographs should be viewed with caution.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 4 | Pages 476 - 478
1 Apr 2011
Kang S Smith TO De Rover WBS Walton NP

There has been debate about the role of unicompartmental knee replacement in the presence of radiologically identifiable degenerative changes of the patellofemoral joint. We studied 195 knees in 163 patients in whom an Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement had been performed for medial osteoarthritis between January 2004 and July 2007. The mean age of the patients was 66 years (51 to 93). The degree of degenerative change of the patellofemoral joint was assessed using Jones’ criteria. Functional outcome was assessed at a mean of 3.4 years (2 to 7) post-operatively, using the Oxford knee score and the Short-form 12 score.

Degenerative changes of the patellofemoral joint were seen pre-operatively in 125 knees (64%) on the skyline radiographs. There was no statistically significant difference in the Oxford knee or Short-form 12 scores between those patients who had patellofemoral osteoarthritis pre-operatively and those who did not (p = 0.22 and 0.54, respectively).

These results support the opinion expressed at the designer’s hospital that degenerative changes of the patellofemoral joint in isolation should not be considered to be a contraindication to medial Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement.