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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 2 | Pages 198 - 208
1 Feb 2023
Cheok T Smith T Wills K Jennings MP Rawat J Foster B


We investigated the prevalence of late developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), abduction bracing treatment, and surgical procedures performed following the implementation of universal ultrasound screening versus selective ultrasound screening programmes.


A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, OrthoSearch, and Web of Science from the date of inception of each database until 27 March 2022 was performed. The primary outcome of interest was the prevalence of late detection of DDH, diagnosed after three months. Secondary outcomes of interest were the prevalence of abduction bracing treatment and surgical procedures performed in childhood for dysplasia. Only studies describing the primary outcome of interest were included.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 3 | Pages 311 - 320
1 Mar 2022
Cheok T Smith T Siddiquee S Jennings MP Jayasekera N Jaarsma RL


The preoperative diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a challenge due to a lack of biomarkers that are both sensitive and specific. We investigated the performance characteristics of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), interleukin-6 (IL6), and calprotectin of synovial fluid in the diagnosis of PJI.


We performed systematic search of PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Science Direct from the date of inception of each database through to 31 May 2021. Studies which described the diagnostic accuracy of synovial fluid PCR, IL6, and calprotectin using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria as the reference standard were identified.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 11 | Pages 909 - 920
10 Nov 2021
Smith T Clark L Khoury R Man M Hanson S Welsh A Clark A Hopewell S Pfeiffer K Logan P Crotty M Costa M Lamb SE


This study aims to assess the feasibility of conducting a pragmatic, multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the clinical and cost-effectiveness of an informal caregiver training programme to support the recovery of people following hip fracture surgery.


This will be a mixed-methods feasibility RCT, recruiting 60 patients following hip fracture surgery and their informal caregivers. Patients will be randomized to usual NHS care, versus usual NHS care plus a caregiver-patient dyad training programme (HIP HELPER). This programme will comprise of three, one-hour, one-to-one training sessions for the patient and caregiver, delivered by a nurse, physiotherapist, or occupational therapist. Training will be delivered in the hospital setting pre-patient discharge. It will include practical skills for rehabilitation such as: transfers and walking; recovery goal setting and expectations; pacing and stress management techniques; and introduction to the HIP HELPER Caregiver Workbook, which provides information on recovery, exercises, worksheets, and goal-setting plans to facilitate a ‘good’ recovery. After discharge, patients and caregivers will be supported in delivering rehabilitation through three telephone coaching sessions. Data, collected at baseline and four months post-randomization, will include: screening logs, intervention logs, fidelity checklists, quality assurance monitoring visit data, and clinical outcomes assessing quality of life, physical, emotional, adverse events, and resource use outcomes. The acceptability of the study intervention and RCT design will be explored through qualitative methods with 20 participants (patients and informal caregivers) and 12 health professionals.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1519 - 1524
1 Nov 2015
Salih S Paskins A Nichol T Smith T Hamer A

We investigated whether the indentation of bone cement spacers used in revision of infected joint arthroplasty with a MacDonald dissector increased the elution of antibiotic in vitro. A total of 24 cement discs containing either 0.17 g (0.88% w/w), 0.25 g (1.41% w/w), or 0.33 g (1.75% w/w) gentamicin of constant size were made. Of these, 12 were indented with the dissector. Each disc was immersed in ammonium acetate buffer in a sealed container, and fluid from each container was sampled at zero, one, three, six, 24, 48 and 72 hours and at one, and two weeks. The concentration of gentamicin in the fluid was analysed using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

The fluid sampled at 72 hours from the indented discs containing 0.17 g gentamicin (0.88% w/w) contained a mean of 113 mcg/ml (90.12 to 143.5) compared with 44.5 mcg/ml (44.02 to 44.90) in the fluid sampled from the plain discs (p = 0.012). In discs containing 0.33 g gentamicin (1.75% w/w), the concentration eluted from the indented discs at 72 hours was a mean of 316 mcg/ml (223 to 421) compared with a mean of 118 mcg/ml (100 to 140) from the plain discs (p < 0.001).

At two weeks, these significant differences persisted. At nine weeks the indented discs eluted a greater concentration for all gentamicin doses, but the difference was only significant for the discs containing 0.17 g (0.88% w/w, p = 0.006). However if the area under the curve is taken as a measure of the total antibiotic eluted, the indented discs eluted more gentamicin than the plain discs for the 0.17 g (0.88% w/w, p = 0.031), the 0.25 g (1.41% w/w, p < 0.001) and the 0.33 g (1.75% w/w, p < 0.001) discs.

When preparing antibiotic spacers for use in staged revision arthroplasty surgery we recommend indenting the spacer with a MacDonald dissector to increase the elution of antibiotic.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1519–24.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1588 - 1588
1 Nov 2015
Klenerman P Smith T Horan F Ross AC

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 3, Issue 5 | Pages 2 - 7
1 Oct 2014
Unsworth-Smith T Wood D

Obesity is a global epidemic of 2.1 billion people and a well known cause of osteoarthritis. Joint replacement in the obese attracts more complications, poorer outcomes and higher revision rates. It is a reversible condition and the fundamental principles of dealing with reversible medical conditions prior to elective total joint replacement should apply to obesity. The dilemma for orthopaedic surgeons is when to offer surgery in the face of a reversible condition, which if treated may obviate joint replacement and reduce the risk and severity of obesity related disease in both the medical arena and the field of orthopaedics.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 6 | Pages 918 - 921
1 Aug 2003
Ellington JK Harris M Webb L Smith B Smith T Tan K Hudson M

Staphylococcus aureus is the bacterial pathogen which is responsible for approximately 80% of all cases of human osteomyelitis. It can invade and remain within osteoblasts. The fate of intracellular Staph. aureus after the death of the osteoblast has not been documented.

We exposed human osteoblasts to Staph. aureus. After infection, the osteoblasts were either lysed with Triton X-100 or trypsinised. The bacteria released from both the trypsinised and lysed osteoblasts were cultured and counted. Colonies of the recovered bacteria were then introduced to additional cultures of human osteoblasts.

The number of intracellular Staph. aureus recovered from the two techniques was equivalent. Staph. aureus recovered from time zero and 24 hours after infection, followed by lysis/trypsinisation, were capable of invading a second culture of human osteoblasts.

Our findings indicate that dead or dying osteoblasts are capable of releasing viable Staph. aureus and that Staph. aureus released from dying or dead osteoblasts is capable of reinfecting human osteoblasts in culture.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 75-B, Issue 4 | Pages 662 - 663
1 Jul 1993
Hamer A Stanley D Smith T

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 1 | Pages 129 - 130
1 Jan 1991
Smith T Stanley D Rowley D

A method of treating Freiberg's disease of the metatarsal head by shortening the metatarsal bone is described. This operation has been performed in 15 patients (16 feet). Excellent relief of pain was obtained, although most patients had persistent stiffness of the metatarsophalangeal joint.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 58-B, Issue 2 | Pages 224 - 226
1 May 1976
Sharrard W Smith T

Paralytic clawing of the hallux may occur in children with congenital disorders of the neuraxis. Tenodesis of flexor hallucis longus allows correction of this deformity in early childhood. Seventeen of these procedures have been reviewed and good results were obtained in fifteen.