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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 8, Issue 1 | Pages 11 - 18
1 Jan 2019
McLean M McCall K Smith IDM Blyth M Kitson SM Crowe LAN Leach WJ Rooney BP Spencer SJ Mullen M Campton JL McInnes IB Akbar M Millar NL


Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an anti-fibrinolytic medication commonly used to reduce perioperative bleeding. Increasingly, topical administration as an intra-articular injection or perioperative wash is being administered during surgery. Adult soft tissues have a poor regenerative capacity and therefore damage to these tissues can be harmful to the patient. This study investigated the effects of TXA on human periarticular tissues and primary cell cultures using clinically relevant concentrations.


Tendon, synovium, and cartilage obtained from routine orthopaedic surgeries were used for ex vivo and in vitro studies using various concentrations of TXA. The in vitro effect of TXA on primary cultured tenocytes, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and chondrocytes was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assays, fluorescent microscopy, and multi-protein apoptotic arrays for cell death.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 7 | Pages 457 - 467
1 Jul 2018
Smith IDM Milto KM Doherty CJ Amyes SGB Simpson AHRW Hall AC


Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most commonly implicated organism in septic arthritis, a condition that may be highly destructive to articular cartilage. Previous studies investigating laboratory and clinical strains of S. aureus have demonstrated that potent toxins induced significant chondrocyte death, although the precise toxin or toxins that were involved was unknown. In this study, we used isogenic S. aureus mutants to assess the influence of alpha (Hla)-, beta (Hlb)-, and gamma (Hlg)-haemolysins, toxins considered important for the destruction of host tissue, on in situ bovine chondrocyte viability.


Bovine cartilage explants were cultured with isogenic S. aureus mutants and/or their culture supernatants. Chondrocyte viability was then assessed within defined regions of interest in the axial and coronal plane following live- and dead-cell imaging using the fluorescent probes 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide, respectively, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1435 - 1440
1 Nov 2008
Smith IDM Elton R Ballantyne JA Brenkel IJ

In Scotland, the number of primary total knee replacements performed annually has been increasing steadily. The price of the implant is fixed but the length of hospital stay is variable.

We prospectively investigated all patients who underwent primary unilateral total knee replacement in the Scottish region of Fife, between December 1994 and February 2007 and assessed their recorded pre-operative details. The data were analysed using univariate and multiple linear regression statistical analysis.

Data on the length of stay were available from a total of 2106 unilateral total knee replacements. The median length of hospital stay was eight days. The significant pre-operative risk factors for an increased length of stay were the year of admission, details of the consultant looking after the patient, the stair score, the walking-aid score and age.

Awareness of the pre-operative factors which increase the length of hospital stay may provide the opportunity to influence them favourably and to reduce the time in hospital and the associated costs of unilateral total knee replacement.