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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 1 | Pages 83 - 90
1 Jan 2022
Batten TJ Gallacher S Evans JP Harding RJ Kitson J Smith CD Thomas WJ


The use and variety of stemless humeral components in anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) have proliferated since their advent in 2004. Early outcomes are reassuring but independent mid-term results are scarce. This independent study reports a consecutive series of 143 Eclipse stemless shoulder prostheses with a minimum five-year (5 to 10) follow-up.


Outcomes of 143 procedures undertaken for all indications in 131 patients were reviewed, with subset analysis of those for osteoarthritis (OA) (n = 99). The primary outcome was the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) at a minimum of five years. Secondary outcomes were ranges of motion and radiological analysis of humeral radiolucency, rotator cuff failure, and glenoid loosening.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 5 | Pages 813 - 821
1 May 2021
Burden EG Batten TJ Smith CD Evans JP


This systematic review asked which patterns of complications are associated with the three reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) prosthetic designs, as classified by Routman et al, in patients undergoing RTSA for the management of cuff tear arthropathy, massive cuff tear, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The three implant design philosophies investigated were medial glenoid/medial humerus (MGMH), medial glenoid/lateral humerus (MGLH), and lateral glenoid/medial humerus (LGMH).


A systematic review of the literature was performed via a search of MEDLINE and Embase. Two reviewers extracted data on complication occurrence and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Meta-analysis was conducted on the reported proportion of complications, weighted by sample size, and PROMs were pooled using the reported standardized mean difference (SMD). Quality of methodology was assessed using Wylde’s non-summative four-point system. The study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020193041).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1067 - 1072
1 Aug 2017
Booker SJ Boyd M Gallacher S Evans JP Auckland C Kitson J Thomas W Smith CD


Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of Propionibacterium (P.) acnes in the subcutaneous fat and capsule of patients undergoing shoulder surgery for frozen shoulder or instability.

Patients and Methods

A total of 46 patients undergoing either an arthroscopic capsular release or stabilisation had biopsies taken from the subcutaneous fat and capsule of the shoulder at the time of surgery. These samples were sent for culture in enrichment, and also for Nucleic Acid Amplification testing. The prevalence of P. acnes and other microbes was recorded. Fisher's exact test of binary variables was used to calculate the association with significance set at p < 0.05. Assessment of influence of independent variables including a pre-operative glenohumeral injection, fat colonisation and gender, was undertaken using binary linear regression.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1395 - 1398
1 Oct 2016
Smith CD Booker SJ Uppal HS Kitson J Bunker TD


Despite the expansion of arthroscopic surgery of the shoulder, the open deltopectoral approach is increasingly used for the fixation of fractures and arthroplasty of the shoulder. The anatomy of the terminal branches of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) has not been described before. We undertook an investigation to correct this omission.

Patients and Methods

The vascular anatomy encountered during 100 consecutive elective deltopectoral approaches was recorded, and the common variants of the terminal branches of the PCHA are described.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 7 | Pages 963 - 966
1 Jul 2015
Evans JP Guyver PM Smith CD

Frozen shoulder is a recognised complication following simple arthroscopic shoulder procedures, but its exact incidence has not been reported. Our aim was to analyse a single-surgeon series of patients undergoing arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD; group 1) or ASD in combination with arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) excision (group 2), to establish the incidence of frozen shoulder post-operatively. Our secondary aim was to identify associated risk factors and to compare this cohort with a group of patients with primary frozen shoulder.

We undertook a retrospective analysis of 200 consecutive procedures performed between August 2011 and November 2013. Group 1 included 96 procedures and group 2 104 procedures. Frozen shoulder was diagnosed post-operatively using the British Elbow and Shoulder Society criteria. A comparative group from the same institution involved 136 patients undergoing arthroscopic capsular release for primary idiopathic frozen shoulder.

The incidence of frozen shoulder was 5.21% in group 1 and 5.71% in group 2. Age between 46 and 60 years (p = 0.002) and a previous idiopathic contralateral frozen shoulder (p < 0.001) were statistically significant risk factors for the development of secondary frozen shoulder. Comparison of baseline characteristics against the comparator groups showed no statistically significant differences for age, gender, diabetes and previous contralateral frozen shoulder.

These results suggest that the risk of frozen shoulder following simple arthroscopic procedures is just over 5%, with no increased risk if the ACJ is also excised. Patients aged between 46 and 60 years and a previous history of frozen shoulder increase the relative risk of secondary frozen shoulder by 7.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 28.3)and 18.5 (95% CI 7.4 to 46.3) respectively.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:963–6.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 5 | Pages 657 - 659
1 May 2013
Bunker TD Cosker TDA Dunkerley S Kitson J Smith CD

Despite the expansion of arthroscopic surgery of the shoulder, the open deltopectoral approach to the shoulder is still frequently used, for example in fracture fixation and shoulder replacement. However, it is sometimes accompanied by unexpected bleeding. The cephalic vein is the landmark for the deltopectoral interval, yet its intimate relationship with the deltoid artery, and the anatomical variations in that structure, have not previously been documented.

In this study the vascular anatomy encountered during 100 consecutive elective deltopectoral approaches was recorded and the common variants described. Two common variants of the deltoid artery were encountered. In type I (71%) it crosses the interval and tunnels into the deltoid muscle without encountering the cephalic vein. However, in type II (21%) it crosses the interval, reaches the cephalic vein and then runs down, medial to and behind it, giving off several small arterial branches that return back across the interval to the pectoralis major. Several minor variations were also seen (8%).

These variations in the deltoid artery have not previously been described and may lead to confusion and unexpected bleeding during this standard anterior surgical approach to the shoulder.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:657–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 1 | Pages 70 - 74
1 Jan 2013
Dattani R Smith CD Patel VR

We investigated the incidence of and risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) following surgery of the shoulder and elbow and assessed the role of thromboprophylaxis in upper limb surgery. All papers describing VTE after shoulder and elbow surgery published in the English language literature before 31 March 2012 were reviewed. A total of 14 papers were available for analysis, most of which were retrospective studies and case series. The incidence of VTE was 0.038% from 92 440 shoulder arthroscopic procedures, 0.52% from 42 261 shoulder replacements, and 0.64% from 4833 procedures for fractures of the proximal humerus (open reduction and internal fixation or hemiarthroplasty). The incidence following replacement of the elbow was 0.26% from 2701 procedures. Diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis and ischaemic heart disease were identified as the major risk factors.

The evidence that exists on thromboprophylaxis is based on level III and IV studies, and we therefore cannot make any recommendations on prophylaxis based on the current evidence. It seems reasonable to adopt a multimodal approach that involves all patients receiving mechanical prophylaxis, with chemical prophylaxis reserved for those who are at high risk for VTE.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:70–4.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 5 | Pages 577 - 583
1 May 2012
Smith CD Guyver P Bunker TD

The outcome of an anatomical shoulder replacement depends on an intact rotator cuff. In 1981 Grammont designed a novel large-head reverse shoulder replacement for patients with cuff deficiency. Such has been the success of this replacement that it has led to a rapid expansion of the indications. We performed a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the functional outcome of each indication for the reverse shoulder replacement. Secondary outcome measures of range of movement, pain scores and complication rates are also presented.