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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 3 | Pages 221 - 226
1 Mar 2023
Wilton T Skinner JA Haddad FS

Recent publications have drawn attention to the fact that some brands of joint replacement may contain variants which perform significantly worse (or better) than their ‘siblings’. As a result, the National Joint Registry has performed much more detailed analysis on the larger families of knee arthroplasties in order to identify exactly where these differences may be present and may hitherto have remained hidden. The analysis of the Nexgen knee arthroplasty brand identified that some posterior-stabilized combinations have particularly high revision rates for aseptic loosening of the tibia, and consequently a medical device recall has been issued for the Nexgen ‘option’ tibial component which was implicated. More elaborate signal detection is required in order to identify such variation in results in a routine fashion if patients are to be protected from such variation in outcomes between closely related implant types.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(3):221–226.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 5 | Pages 301 - 303
17 May 2022
Clement ND Skinner JA Haddad FS Simpson AHRW

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 6 | Pages 348 - 350
1 Jun 2021
Skinner JA Sabah SA Hart AJ

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 1 | Pages 56 - 64
1 Jan 2021
Podmore B Hutchings A Skinner JA MacGregor AJ van der Meulen J


Access to joint replacement is being restricted for patients with comorbidities in a number of high-income countries. However, there is little evidence on the impact of comorbidities on outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of hip and knee arthroplasty in patients with and without comorbidities.


In total, 312,079 hip arthroplasty and 328,753 knee arthroplasty patients were included. A total of 11 common comorbidities were identified in administrative hospital records. Safety risks were measured by assessing length of hospital stay (LOS) and 30-day emergency readmissions and mortality. Effectiveness outcomes were changes in Oxford Hip or Knee Scores (OHS/OKS) (scale from 0 (worst) to 48 (best)) and in health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) (scale from 0 (death) to 1 (full health)) from immediately before, to six months after, surgery. Regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted mean differences (LOS, change in OHS/OKS/EQ-5D) and risk differences (readmissions and mortality).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 1 | Pages 20 - 27
1 Jan 2018
Sabah SA Moon JC Jenkins-Jones S Morgan CL Currie CJ Wilkinson JM Porter M Captur G Henckel J Chaturvedi N Kay P Skinner JA Hart AH Manisty C


The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with metal-on-metal (MoM) arthroplasties of the hip have an increased risk of cardiac failure compared with those with alternative types of arthroplasties (non-MoM).

Patients and Methods

A linkage study between the National Joint Registry, Hospital Episodes Statistics and records of the Office for National Statistics on deaths was undertaken. Patients who underwent elective total hip arthroplasty between January 2003 and December 2014 with no past history of cardiac failure were included and stratified as having either a MoM (n = 53 529) or a non-MoM (n = 482 247) arthroplasty. The primary outcome measure was the time to an admission to hospital for cardiac failure or death. Analysis was carried out using data from all patients and from those matched by propensity score.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 1 | Pages 1 - 3
1 Jan 2018
Skinner JA Haddad FS

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 1 | Pages 119 - 124
1 Jan 2018
Broderick C Hopkins S Mack DJF Aston W Pollock R Skinner JA Warren S


Tuberculosis (TB) infection of bones and joints accounts for 6.7% of TB cases in England, and is associated with significant morbidity and disability. Public Health England reports that patients with TB experience delays in diagnosis and treatment. Our aims were to determine the demographics, presentation and investigation of patients with a TB infection of bones and joints, to help doctors assessing potential cases and to identify avoidable delays.

Patients and Methods

This was a retrospective observational study of all adults with positive TB cultures on specimens taken at a tertiary orthopaedic centre between June 2012 and May 2014. A laboratory information system search identified the patients. The demographics, clinical presentation, radiology, histopathology and key clinical dates were obtained from medical records.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 8 | Pages 993 - 995
1 Aug 2017
Skinner JA Haddad FS

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 5 | Pages 345 - 350
1 May 2017
Di Laura A Hothi H Henckel J Swiatkowska I Liow MHL Kwon Y Skinner JA Hart AJ


The use of ceramic femoral heads in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has increased due to their proven low bearing wear characteristics. Ceramic femoral heads are also thought to reduce wear and corrosion at the head-stem junction with titanium (Ti) stems when compared with metal heads. We sought to evaluate taper damage of ceramic compared with metal heads when paired with cobalt chromium (CoCr) alloy stems in a single stem design.


This retrieval study involved 48 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with CoCr V40 trunnions paired with either CoCr (n = 21) or ceramic (n = 27) heads. The taper junction of all hips was evaluated for fretting/corrosion damage and volumetric material loss using a roundness-measuring machine. We used linear regression analysis to investigate taper damage differences after adjusting for potential confounding variables.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 7 | Pages 917 - 924
1 Jul 2016
Whittaker RK Hothi HS Meswania JM Berber R Blunn GW Skinner JA Hart AJ


Surgeons have commonly used modular femoral heads and stems from different manufacturers, although this is not recommended by orthopaedic companies due to the different manufacturing processes.

We compared the rate of corrosion and rate of wear at the trunnion/head taper junction in two groups of retrieved hips; those with mixed manufacturers (MM) and those from the same manufacturer (SM).

Materials and Methods

We identified 151 retrieved hips with large-diameter cobalt-chromium heads; 51 of two designs that had been paired with stems from different manufacturers (MM) and 100 of seven designs paired with stems from the same manufacturer (SM). We determined the severity of corrosion with the Goldberg corrosion score and the volume of material loss at the head/stem junction. We used multivariable statistical analysis to determine if there was a significant difference between the two groups.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1 | Pages 33 - 39
1 Jan 2016
Sabah SA Henckel J Koutsouris S Rajani R Hothi H Skinner JA Hart AJ


The National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland (NJR) has extended its scope to report on hospital, surgeon and implant performance. Data linkage of the NJR to the London Implant Retrieval Centre (LIRC) has previously evaluated data quality for hip primary procedures, but did not assess revision records.


We analysed metal-on-metal hip revision procedures performed between 2003 and 2013. A total of 69 929 revision procedures from the NJR and 929 revised pairs of components from the LIRC were included.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1 | Pages 1 - 2
1 Jan 2016
Haddad FS Manktelow ARJ Skinner JA

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 1 | Pages 10 - 18
1 Jan 2015
Sabah SA Henckel J Cook E Whittaker R Hothi H Pappas Y Blunn G Skinner JA Hart AJ

Arthroplasty registries are important for the surveillance of joint replacements and the evaluation of outcome. Independent validation of registry data ensures high quality. The ability for orthopaedic implant retrieval centres to validate registry data is not known. We analysed data from the National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland (NJR) for primary metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties performed between 2003 and 2013. Records were linked to the London Implant Retrieval Centre (RC) for validation. A total of 67 045 procedures on the NJR and 782 revised pairs of components from the RC were included. We were able to link 476 procedures (60.9%) recorded with the RC to the NJR successfully. However, 306 procedures (39.1%) could not be linked. The outcome recorded by the NJR (as either revised, unrevised or death) for a primary procedure was incorrect in 79 linked cases (16.6%). The rate of registry-retrieval linkage and correct assignment of outcome code improved over time. The rates of error for component reference numbers on the NJR were as follows: femoral head category number 14/229 (5.0%); femoral head batch number 13/232 (5.3%); acetabular component category number 2/293 (0.7%) and acetabular component batch number 24/347 (6.5%).

Registry-retrieval linkage provided a novel means for the validation of data, particularly for component fields. This study suggests that NJR reports may underestimate rates of revision for many types of metal-on-metal hip replacement. This is topical given the increasing scope for NJR data. We recommend a system for continuous independent evaluation of the quality and validity of NJR data.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:10–18.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1392 - 1395
1 Oct 2014
Dhinsa BS Gregory JJ Nawabi DH Khan S Pollock R Aston WJ Skinner JA Briggs TWR

In patients with a tumour affecting the distal ulna it is difficult to preserve the function of the wrist following extensive local resection. We report the outcome of 12 patients (nine female, three male) who underwent excision of the distal ulna without local soft-tissue reconstruction. In six patients, an aggressive benign tumour was present and six had a malignant tumour. At a mean follow-up of 64 months (15 to 132) the mean Musculoskeletal Tumour score was 64% (40% to 93%) and the mean DASH score was 35 (10 to 80). The radiological appearances were satisfactory in most patients. Local recurrence occurred in one patient with benign disease and two with malignant disease. The functional outcome was thus satisfactory at a mean follow-up in excess of five years, with a relatively low rate of complications. The authors conclude that complex reconstructive soft-tissue procedures may not be needed in these patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1392–5.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1098 - 1105
1 Aug 2014
Brown MT Gikas PD Bhamra JS Skinner JA Aston WJS Pollock RC Saifuddin A Briggs TWR

The pre-operative differentiation between enchondroma, low-grade chondrosarcoma and high-grade chondrosarcoma remains a diagnostic challenge. We reviewed the accuracy and safety of the radiological grading of cartilaginous tumours through the assessment of, first, pre-operative radiological and post-operative histological agreement, and second the rate of recurrence in lesions confirmed as high-grade on histology. We performed a retrospective review of major long bone cartilaginous tumours managed by curettage as low grade between 2001 and 2012. A total of 53 patients with a mean age of 47.6 years (8 to 71) were included. There were 23 men and 30 women. The tumours involved the femur (n = 20), humerus (n = 18), tibia (n = 9), fibula (n = 3), radius (n = 2) and ulna (n = 1). Pre-operative diagnoses resulted from multidisciplinary consensus following radiological review alone for 35 tumours, or with the addition of pre-operative image guided needle biopsy for 18. The histologically confirmed diagnosis was enchondroma for two (3.7%), low-grade chondrosarcoma for 49 (92.6%) and high-grade chondrosarcoma for two (3.7%). Three patients with a low-grade tumour developed a local recurrence at a mean of 15 months (12 to 17) post-operatively. A single high-grade recurrence (grade II) was treated with tibial diaphyseal replacement. The overall recurrence rate was 7.5% at a mean follow-up of 4.7 years (1.2 to 12.3). Cartilaginous tumours identified as low-grade on pre-operative imaging with or without additional image-guided needle biopsy can safely be managed as low-grade without pre-operative histological diagnosis. A few tumours may demonstrate high-grade features histologically, but the rates of recurrence are not affected.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:1098–105.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 2 | Pages 263 - 269
1 Feb 2014
Batta V Coathup MJ Parratt MT Pollock RC Aston WJ Cannon SR Skinner JA Briggs TW Blunn GW

We reviewed the outcome of 69 uncemented, custom-made, distal femoral endoprosthetic replacements performed in 69 patients between 1994 and 2006. There were 31 women and 38 men with a mean age at implantation of 16.5 years (5 to 37). All procedures were performed for primary malignant bone tumours of the distal femur. At a mean follow-up of 124.2 months (4 to 212), 53 patients were alive, with one patient lost to follow-up. All nine implants (13.0%) were revised due to aseptic loosening at a mean of 52 months (8 to 91); three implants (4.3%) were revised due to fracture of the shaft of the prosthesis and three patients (4.3%) had a peri-prosthetic fracture. Bone remodelling associated with periosteal cortical thinning adjacent to the uncemented intramedullary stem was seen in 24 patients but this did not predispose to failure. All aseptically loose implants in this series were diagnosed to be loose within the first five years.

The results from this study suggest that custom-made uncemented distal femur replacements have a higher rate of aseptic loosening compared to published results for this design when used with cemented fixation. Loosening of uncemented replacements occurs early indicating that initial fixation of the implant is crucial.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:263–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 1 | Pages 54 - 58
1 Jan 2014
Vijayan S Bentley G Rahman J Briggs TWR Skinner JA Carrington RWJ

The management of failed autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) for the treatment of symptomatic osteochondral defects in the knee represents a major challenge. Patients are young, active and usually unsuitable for prosthetic replacement. This study reports the results in patients who underwent revision cartilage transplantation of their original ACI/MACI graft for clinical or graft-related failure. We assessed 22 patients (12 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37.4 years (18 to 48) at a mean of 5.4 years (1.3 to 10.9). The mean period between primary and revision grafting was 46.1 months (7 to 89). The mean defect size was 446.6 mm2 (150 to 875) and they were located on 11 medial and two lateral femoral condyles, eight patellae and one trochlea.

The mean modified Cincinnati knee score improved from 40.5 (16 to 77) pre-operatively to 64.9 (8 to 94) at their most recent review (p < 0.001). The visual analogue pain score improved from 6.1 (3 to 9) to 4.7 (0 to 10) (p = 0.042). A total of 14 patients (63%) reported an ‘excellent’ (n = 6) or ‘good’ (n = 8) clinical outcome, 5 ‘fair’ and one ‘poor’ outcome. Two patients underwent patellofemoral joint replacement. This study demonstrates that revision cartilage transplantation after primary ACI and MACI can yield acceptable functional results and continue to preserve the joint.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:54–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1011 - 1021
1 Aug 2013
Krishnan H Krishnan SP Blunn G Skinner JA Hart AJ

Following the recall of modular neck hip stems in July 2012, research into femoral modularity will intensify over the next few years. This review aims to provide surgeons with an up-to-date summary of the clinically relevant evidence. The development of femoral modularity, and a classification system, is described. The theoretical rationale for modularity is summarised and the clinical outcomes are explored. The review also examines the clinically relevant problems reported following the use of femoral stems with a modular neck.

Joint replacement registries in the United Kingdom and Australia have provided data on the failure rates of modular devices but cannot identify the mechanism of failure. This information is needed to determine whether modular neck femoral stems will be used in the future, and how we should monitor patients who already have them implanted.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1011–21.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 2 | Pages 250 - 253
1 Feb 2013
Jalgaonkar A Dawson-Bowling SJ Mohan AT Spiegelberg B Saifuddin A Pollock R Skinner JA Briggs TWR Aston W

Local recurrence along the biopsy track is a known complication of percutaneous needle biopsy of malignant musculoskeletal tumours. In order to completely excise the track with the tumour its identification is essential, but this becomes increasingly difficult over time. In an initial prospective study, 22 of 45 patients (48.8%) identified over a three-month period, treated by resection of a musculoskeletal tumour, had an unidentifiable biopsy site at operation, with identification statistically more difficult after 50 days. We therefore introduced the practice of marking the biopsy site with India ink. In all 55 patients undergoing this procedure, the biopsy track was identified pre-operatively (100%); this difference was statistically significant. We recommend this technique as a safe, easy and accurate means of ensuring adequate excision of the biopsy track.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:250–3.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1377 - 1381
1 Oct 2012
Jaiswal PK Bentley G Carrington RWJ Skinner JA Briggs TWR

We analysed whether a high body mass index (BMI) had a deleterious effect on outcome following autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or matrix-carried autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee from a subset of patients enrolled in the ACI vs MACI trial at The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital.

The mean Modified Cincinnati scores (MCS) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) post-operatively in patients who had an ideal body weight (n = 53; 20 to 24.9 kg/m2) than in overweight (n = 63; 25 to 30 kg/m2) and obese patients (n = 22; > 30 kg/m2). At a follow-up of two years, obese patients demonstrated no sustained improvement in the MCS. Patients with an ideal weight experienced significant improvements as early as six months after surgery (p = 0.007). In total, 82% of patients (31 of 38) in the ideal group had a good or excellent result, compared with 49% (22 of 45) of the overweight and 5.5% (one of 18) in the obese group (p < 0.001). There was a significant negative relationship between BMI and the MCS 24 months after surgery (r = -0.4, p = 0.001).

This study demonstrates that obese patients have worse knee function before surgery and experience no sustained benefit from ACI or MACI at two years after surgery. There was a correlation between increasing BMI and a lower MCS according to a linear regression analysis. On the basis of our findings patient selection can be more appropriately targeted.