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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 8 | Pages 585 - 593
1 Aug 2022
Graham SM Jalal MMK Lalloo DG Hamish R. W. Simpson A


A number of anti-retroviral therapies (ART) have been implicated in potentially contributing to HIV-associated bone disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combination ART on the fracture healing process.


A total of 16 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = eight each): Group 1 was given a combination of Tenfovir 30 mg, Lamivudine 30 mg, and Efavirenz 60 mg per day orally, whereas Group 2 was used as a control. After one week of medication preload, all rats underwent a standardized surgical procedure of mid-shaft tibial osteotomy fixed by intramedullary nail with no gap at the fracture site. Progress in fracture healing was monitored regularly for eight weeks. Further evaluations were carried out after euthanasia by micro-CT, mechanically and histologically. Two blinded orthopaedic surgeons used the Radiological Union Scoring system for the Tibia (RUST) to determine fracture healing.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 4 | Pages 630 - 636
1 Jul 1995
Simpson A Williams P Kyberd P Goldspink G Kenwright J

We used an experimental rabbit model of leg lengthening to study the morphology and function of muscle after different distraction rates. Lengthening was in twice-daily increments from 0.4 to 4 mm per day. New contractile tissue formed during lengthening, but some damage to the muscle fibres was seen even at rates of less than 1 mm per day; abnormalities increased with larger rates of lengthening. There was proliferation of fibrous tissue between the muscle fibres at distraction rates of over 1 mm per day. Active muscle function showed adaptation when the rate was 1.0 mm per day or less, but muscle compliance was normal only after rates of 0.4 mm per day. Muscle responded more favourably at rates of distraction slower than those shown to lead to the most prolific bone formation. At present the rate of distraction in clinical practice is determined mainly by factors which enhance osteogenesis. Our study suggests that it may be advisable to use a slower rate of elongation in patients with poor muscle compliance associated with the underlying pathology; this will allow better accommodation by the contractile and connective tissues of the muscles.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 2 | Pages 299 - 302
1 Mar 1995
Deo S Gibbons C Emerton M Simpson A

Of 1197 renal transplant recipients on the Oxford Transplant Programme, 25 (2%) needed arthroplasties for painful osteonecrosis of the hip. Nine of them had bilateral operations, giving a total of 34 primary total hip replacements (THR). The mean time from onset of symptoms to THR was 2.4 years and from transplantation to THR 5.1 years. The mean follow-up was 5.1 (1 to 14) years. THR relieved the pain in all the patients, but survival analysis indicated a lower survival rate than is usual for primary THR. There were eight major complications. One graft-related problem, early acute tubular necrosis, resolved rapidly after immediate treatment. One patient developed deep infection at 3.5 years after THR which settled with conservative treatment. Five hips developed aseptic loosening requiring revision arthroplasty at a mean of 8.8 years' follow-up. One patient had a non-fatal pulmonary embolism. THR is the treatment of choice for patients with painful osteonecrosis of the hip after renal transplant, but has higher rates of both early and late complications. Surgery should be performed in close association with a renal transplant unit.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 6 | Pages 992 - 993
1 Nov 1994
Beard D Kyberd P Dodd C Simpson A O'Connor J

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 5 | Pages 754 - 756
1 Sep 1994
Spalding T Kiss J Kyberd P Turner-Smith A Simpson A

We measured the driver reaction times of 40 patients before total knee replacement (TKR) and 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks after operation. The ability to perform an emergency stop was assessed as the time taken to achieve a brake pressure of 100 N after a visual stimulus. There were 18 drivers and 11 non-drivers; the latter had longer reaction times. In drivers, the ability to transfer the right foot from accelerator to brake pedal did not recover to preoperative levels for eight weeks after right TKR and was unchanged after left TKR. Patients should be advised that they should not drive for at least eight weeks after right TKR.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 5 | Pages 789 - 792
1 Sep 1994
Gargan M Gundle R Simpson A

Osteotomy has been used in the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric hip fractures in an attempt to increase the stability of the fracture fragments. We have assessed this stability in a randomised prospective trial on 100 consecutive patients, all having fixation by an AO dynamic hip screw, comparing anatomical reduction with two types of osteotomy. The groups were similar in terms of age, gender, mental test score, and fracture configuration. There were more failures of fixation in the osteotomy groups, and the operations took longer. We found no clear benefit from osteotomy and therefore recommend anatomical reduction and fixation by a sliding hip screw in most cases. Rarely, a fracture configuration which does not allow load-sharing between the fracture fragments and the device may benefit from an osteotomy or the use of an alternative implant.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 4 | Pages 654 - 659
1 Jul 1994
Beard D Dodd C Trundle H Simpson A

We performed a prospective, double-blind, randomised, clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of two regimes of rehabilitation for knees with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD). Fifty ACLD patients were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: a programme of muscle strengthening (T) or a programme designed to enhance proprioception and improve hamstring contraction reflexes (P). An indirect measure of proprioception, the reflex hamstring contraction latency (RHCL), and a functional scoring system were used to record the status of the knee before and after the 12-week course of physiotherapy. Sagittal knee laxity was also measured. There was improvement in mean RHCL and in the mean functional score in both groups after treatment. The improvement in group P was significantly greater than that in group T. There was no significant change in joint laxity after treatment in either group. In both groups there was a positive correlation between improvement in RHCL and functional gain.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 72-B, Issue 5 | Pages 894 - 900
1 Sep 1990
Broome G Simpson A Catalan J Jefferson R Houghton G

The modified Schollner costoplasty is a cosmetic procedure for the correction of rib prominence deformity in scoliosis. We present the results of the procedure in 21 patients who had previously undergone spinal fusion for scoliosis. We found the procedure to be well tolerated without major complications. Objective cosmetic improvement was achieved in all but one case. All but one patient considered the procedure to have been of cosmetic benefit.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 72-B, Issue 1 | Pages 80 - 83
1 Jan 1990
Simpson A Williamson D Golding S Houghton G

We report three cases of thoracic spine translocation without neurological deficit. In each case bilateral pedicular fractures, demonstrated by computed tomography, produced 'floating arches' which account for the sparing of the cord. If computed tomography demonstrates adequate canal dimensions, these patients may be treated conservatively, but the treatment of choice at specialist spinal centres is operative stabilisation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 71-B, Issue 3 | Pages 434 - 436
1 May 1989
Simpson A Creasy T Williamson D Wilson D Spivey J

An area of fibrous dysplasia of bone may undergo rapid enlargement which may be due to either cystic degeneration or malignant transformation. These complications may be clinically and radiologically indistinguishable and, unless both are borne in mind, incorrect management may follow. Magnetic resonance imaging was used in one of our cases and was the only imaging modality to demonstrate the true nature of the condition.