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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 5 | Pages 432 - 440
1 May 2022
Craig AD Asmar S Whitaker P Shaw DL Saralaya D


Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the biggest communicable causes of mortality worldwide. While incidence in the UK has continued to fall since 2011, Bradford retains one of the highest TB rates in the UK. This study aims to examine the local disease burden of musculoskeletal (MSK) TB, by analyzing common presenting factors within the famously diverse population of Bradford.


An observational study was conducted, using data from the Bradford Teaching Hospitals TB database of patients with a formal diagnosis of MSK TB between January 2005 and July 2017. Patient data included demographic data (including nationality/date of entry to the UK), disease focus, microbiology, and management strategies. Disease incidence was calculated using population data from the Office for National Statistics. Poisson confidence intervals were calculated to demonstrate the extent of statistical error. Disease incidence and nationality were also analyzed, and correlation sought, using the chi-squared test.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 6 | Pages 815 - 818
1 Aug 2001
Alonso JA Shaw DL Maxwell A McGill GP Hart GC

We measured the scattered radiation received by theatre staff, using high-sensitivity electronic personal dosimeters, during fixation of extracapsular fractures of the neck of the femur by dynamic hip screw. The dose received was correlated with that received by the patient, and the distance from the source of radiation. A scintillation detector and a water-filled model were used to define a map of the dose rate of scattered radiation in a standard operating theatre during surgery. Beyond two metres from the source of radiation, the scattered dose received was consistently low, while within the operating distance that received by staff was significant for both lateral and posteroanterior (PA) projections.

The routine use of lead aprons outside the 2 m zone may be unnecessary. Within that zone it is recommended that lead aprons be worn and that thyroid shields are available for the surgeon and nursing assistants.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 2 | Pages 318 - 319
1 Mar 1996
Hyder N Shaw DL Bollen SR