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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1061 - 1066
1 Aug 2017
Refaie R Rushton P McGovern P Thompson D Serrano-Pedraza I Rankin KS Reed M


The interaction between surgical lighting and laminar airflow is poorly understood. We undertook an experiment to identify any effect contemporary surgical lights have on laminar flow and recommend practical strategies to limit any negative effects.

Materials and Methods

Neutrally buoyant bubbles were introduced into the surgical field of a simulated setup for a routine total knee arthroplasty in a laminar flow theatre. Patterns of airflow were observed and the number of bubbles remaining above the surgical field over time identified. Five different lighting configurations were assessed. Data were analysed using simple linear regression after logarithmic transformation.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1657 - 1661
1 Dec 2015
Taranu R Rushton PRP Serrano-Pedraza I Holder L Wallace WA Candal-Couto JJ

Dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint is a relatively common injury and a number of surgical interventions have been described for its treatment. Recently, a synthetic ligament device has become available and been successfully used, however, like other non-native solutions, a compromise must be reached when choosing non-anatomical locations for their placement. This cadaveric study aimed to assess the effect of different clavicular anchorage points for the Lockdown device on the reduction of acromioclavicular joint dislocations, and suggest an optimal location. We also assessed whether further stability is provided using a coracoacromial ligament transfer (a modified Neviaser technique). The acromioclavicular joint was exposed on seven fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders. The joint was reconstructed using the Lockdown implant using four different clavicular anchorage points and reduction was measured. The coracoacromial ligament was then transferred to the lateral end of the clavicle, and the joint re-assessed. If the Lockdown ligament was secured at the level of the conoid tubercle, the acromioclavicular joint could be reduced anatomically in all cases. If placed medial or 2 cm lateral, the joint was irreducible. If the Lockdown was placed 1 cm lateral to the conoid tubercle, the joint could be reduced with difficulty in four cases. Correct placement of the Lockdown device is crucial to allow anatomical joint reduction. Even when the Lockdown was placed over the conoid tubercle, anterior clavicle displacement remained but this could be controlled using a coracoacromial ligament transfer.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1657–61.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 2 | Pages 173 - 176
1 Feb 2013
Petheram TG Bone M Joyce TJ Serrano-Pedraza I Reed MR Partington PF

Recent guidance recommends the use of a well-proven cemented femoral stem for hemiarthroplasty in the management of fractures of the femoral neck, and the Exeter Trauma Stem (ETS) has been suggested as an example of such an implant. The design of this stem was based on the well-proven Exeter Total Hip Replacement stem (ETHRS). This study assessed the surface finish of the ETS in comparison with the ETHRS. Two ETSs and two ETHRSs were examined using a profilometer with a precision of 1 nm and compared with an explanted Exeter Matt stem. The mean roughness average (RA) of the ETSs was approximately ten times higher than that of the ETHRSs (0.235 μm (0.095 to 0.452) versus 0.025 μm (0.011 to 0.059); p < 0.001). The historical Exeter Matt stem roughness measured a mean RA of 0.973 μm (0.658 to 1.159). The change of the polished Exeter stem to a matt surface finish in 1976 resulted in a high stem failure rate. We do not yet know whether the surface differences between ETS and ETHRS will be clinically significant. We propose the inclusion of hemiarthroplasty stems in national joint registries.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:173–6.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1327 - 1333
1 Oct 2011
Jameson SS Dowen D James P Serrano-Pedraza I Reed MR Deehan DJ

Arthroscopy of the knee is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures worldwide. Large-volume outcome data have not previously been available for English NHS patients. Prospectively collected admissions data, routinely collected on every English NHS patient, were analysed to determine the rates of complications within 30 days (including re-operation and re-admission), 90-day symptomatic venous thromboembolism and all-cause mortality. There were 301 701 operations performed between 2005 and 2010 – an annual incidence of 9.9 per 10 000 English population. Of these, 16 552 (6%) underwent ligament reconstruction and 106 793 (35%) underwent meniscal surgery. The 30-day re-admission rate was 0.64% (1662) and 30-day wound complication rate was 0.26% (677). The overall 30-day re-operation rate was 0.40% (1033) and the 90-day pulmonary embolism rate was 0.08% (230), of which six patients died. 90-day mortality was 0.02% (47). Age < 40 years, male gender and ligament reconstruction were significantly associated with an increased rate of 30-day re-admission and unplanned re-operation. In addition, a significant increase in 30-day admission rates were seen with Charlson comorbidity scores of 1 (p = 0.037) and ≥ 2 (p <  0.001) compared with scores of 0, and medium volume units compared with high volume units (p < 0.001).

Complications following arthroscopy of the knee are rare. It is a safe procedure, which in the majority of cases is performed as day case surgery. These data can be used for quality benchmarking, in terms of consent, consultant re-validation and individual unit performance.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 7 | Pages 876 - 880
1 Jul 2011
Jameson SS Lees D James P Serrano-Pedraza I Partington PF Muller SD Meek RMD Reed MR

Increased femoral head size may reduce dislocation rates following total hip replacement. The National Joint Registry for England and Wales has highlighted a statistically significant increase in the use of femoral heads ≥ 36 mm in diameter from 5% in 2005 to 26% in 2009, together with an increase in the use of the posterior approach. The aim of this study was to determine whether rates of dislocation have fallen over the same period. National data for England for 247 546 procedures were analysed in order to determine trends in the rate of dislocation at three, six, 12 and 18 months after operation during this time. The 18-month revision rates were also examined.

Between 2005 and 2009 there were significant decreases in cumulative dislocations at three months (1.12% to 0.86%), six months (1.25% to 0.96%) and 12 months (1.42% to 1.11%) (all p < 0.001), and at 18 months (1.56% to 1.31%) for the period 2005 to 2008 (p < 0.001). The 18-month revision rates did not significantly change during the study period (1.26% to 1.39%, odds ratio 1.10 (95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.24), p = 0.118). There was no evidence of changes in the coding of dislocations during this time.

These data have revealed a significant reduction in dislocations associated with the use of large femoral head sizes, with no change in the 18-month revision rate.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 4 | Pages 490 - 497
1 Apr 2011
Jameson SS Augustine A James P Serrano-Pedraza I Oliver K Townshend D Reed MR

Diagnostic and operative codes are routinely collected for every patient admitted to hospital in the English NHS. Data on post-operative complications following foot and ankle surgery have not previously been available in large numbers. Data on symptomatic venous thromboembolism events and mortality within 90 days were extracted for patients undergoing fixation of an ankle fracture, first metatarsal osteotomy, hindfoot fusions and total ankle replacement over a period of 42 months. For ankle fracture surgery (45 949 patients), the rates of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism and mortality were 0.12%, 0.17% and 0.37%, respectively. For first metatarsal osteotomy (33 626 patients), DVT, pulmonary embolism and mortality rates were 0.01%, 0.02% and 0.04%, and for hindfoot fusions (7033 patients) the rates were 0.03%, 0.11% and 0.11%, respectively. The rate of pulmonary embolism in 1633 total ankle replacement patients was 0.06%, and there were no recorded DVTs and no deaths. Statistical analysis could only identify risk factors for venous thromboembolic events of increasing age and multiple comorbidities following fracture surgery.

Venous thromboembolism following foot and ankle surgery is extremely rare, but this subset of fracture patients is at a higher risk. However, there is no evidence that thromboprophylaxis reduces this risk, and these national data suggest that prophylaxis is not required in most of these patients.