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To establish the survivorship, function, and metal ion levels in an unselected series of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasties (HRAs) performed by a non-designer surgeon.


We reviewed 105 consecutive HRAs in 83 patients, performed by a single surgeon, at a mean follow-up of 14.9 years (9.3 to 19.1). The cohort included 45 male and 38 female patients, with a mean age of 49.5 years (SD 12.5)

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 8, Issue 5 | Pages 207 - 215
1 May 2019
Key S Scott G Stammers JG Freeman MAR Pinskerova V Field RE Skinner J Banks SA


The medially spherical GMK Sphere (Medacta International AG, Castel San Pietro, Switzerland) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was previously shown to accommodate lateral rollback while pivoting around a stable medial compartment, aiming to replicate native knee kinematics in which some coronal laxity, especially laterally, is also present. We assess coronal plane kinematics of the GMK Sphere and explore the occurrence and pattern of articular separation during static and dynamic activities.


Using pulsed fluoroscopy and image matching, the coronal kinematics and articular surface separation of 16 well-functioning TKAs were studied during weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing, static, and dynamic activities. The closest distances between the modelled articular surfaces were examined with respect to knee position, and proportions of joint poses exhibiting separation were computed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 5 | Pages 502 - 511
1 May 2019
Lidder S Epstein DJ Scott G


Short-stemmed femoral implants have been used for total hip arthroplasty (THA) in young and active patients to conserve bone, provide physiological loading, and reduce the incidence of thigh pain. Only short- to mid-term results have been presented and there have been concerns regarding component malalignment, incorrect sizing, and subsidence. This systematic review reports clinical and radiological outcomes, complications, revision rates, and implant survival in THA using short-stemmed femoral components.

Materials and Methods

A literature review was performed using the EMBASE, Medline, and Cochrane databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to identify studies reporting clinical and radiological follow-up for short-stemmed hip arthroplasties.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 3 | Pages 80 - 86
1 Mar 2016
Scott G Imam MA Eifert A Freeman MAR Pinskerova V Field RE Skinner J Banks SA


Throughout the 20th Century, it has been postulated that the knee moves on the basis of a four-bar link mechanism composed of the cruciate ligaments, the femur and the tibia. As a consequence, the femur has been thought to roll back with flexion, and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) prostheses have been designed on this basis. Recent work, however, has proposed that at a position of between 0° and 120° the medial femoral condyle does not move anteroposteriorly whereas the lateral femoral condyle tends, but is not obliged, to roll back – a combination of movements which equates to tibial internal/ femoral external rotation with flexion. The aim of this paper was to assess if the articular geometry of the GMK Sphere TKA could recreate the natural knee movements in situ/in vivo.


The pattern of knee movement was studied in 15 patients (six male: nine female; one male with bilateral TKAs) with 16 GMK Sphere implants, at a mean age of 66 years (53 to 76) with a mean BMI of 30 kg/m2 (20 to 35). The motions of all 16 knees were observed using pulsed fluoroscopy during a number of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing static and dynamic activities.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 6 | Pages 759 - 764
1 Jun 2014
Tibrewal S Malagelada F Jeyaseelan L Posch F Scott G

Peri-prosthetic infection is amongst the most common causes of failure following total knee replacement (TKR). In the presence of established infection, thorough joint debridement and removal of all components is necessary following which new components may be implanted. This can be performed in one or two stages; two-stage revision with placement of an interim antibiotic-loaded spacer is regarded by many to be the standard procedure for eradication of peri-prosthetic joint infection.

We present our experience of a consecutive series of 50 single-stage revision TKRs for established deep infection performed between 1979 and 2010. There were 33 women and 17 men with a mean age at revision of 66.8 years (42 to 84) and a mean follow-up of 10.5 years (2 to 24). The mean time between the primary TKR and the revision procedure was 2.05 years (1 to 8).

Only one patient required a further revision for recurrent infection, representing a success rate of 98%. Nine patients required further revision for aseptic loosening, according to microbiological testing of biopsies taken at the subsequent surgery. Three other patients developed a further septic episode but none required another revision.

These results suggest that a single-stage revision can produce comparable results to a two-stage revision. Single-stage revision offers a reduction in costs as well as less morbidity and inconvenience for patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:759–64.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 1 | Pages 51 - 55
1 Jan 2012
Masterson S Lidder S Scott G

We report the long-term results of revision total hip replacement using femoral impaction allografting with both uncemented and cemented Freeman femoral components. A standard design of component was used in both groups, with additional proximal hydroxyapatite coating in the uncemented group. A total of 33 hips in 30 patients received an uncemented component and 31 hips in 30 patients a cemented component. The mean follow-up was 9.8 years (2 to 17) in the uncemented group and 6.2 years (1 to 11) in the cemented group. Revision procedures (for all causes) were required in four patients (four hips) in the uncemented group and in five patients (five hips) in the cemented group. Harris hip scores improved significantly in both groups and were maintained independently of the extent of any migration of the femoral component within the graft or graft–cement mantle.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 4 | Pages 480 - 485
1 Apr 2010
Mannan K Freeman MAR Scott G

The outcome at ten years of 100 Freeman hip stems (Finsbury Orthopaedics, Leatherhead, United Kingdom) retaining the neck with a proximal hydroxyapatite coating in a series of 52 men (six bilateral) and 40 women (two bilateral), has been described previously. None required revision for aseptic loosening. We have extended the follow-up to 20 years with a minimum of 17 years. The mean age of the patients at total hip replacement was 58.9 years (19 to 84).

Six patients were lost to follow-up, but were included up to their last clinical review. A total of 22 patients (22 hips) had died, all from causes unrelated to their surgery. There have been 43 re-operations for failure of the acetabular component. However, in 38 of these the stem was not revised since it remained stable and there was no associated osteolysis. Two of the revisions were for damage to the trunnion after fracture of a modular ceramic head, and in another two, removal of the femoral component was because of the preference of the surgeon. In all cases the femoral component was well fixed, but could be extracted at the time of acetabular revision. In one case both components were revised for deep infection. There has been one case of aseptic loosening of the stem which occurred at 14 years. This stem had migrated distally by 7.6 mm in ten years and 8.4 mm at the time of revision at which stage it was found to be rotationally loose. With hindsight this component had been undersized at implantation.

The survivorship for the stem at 17 years with aseptic loosening as the endpoint was 98.6% (95% confidence interval 95.9 to 100) when 62 hips were at risk. All remaining stems had a satisfactory clinical and radiological outcome. The Freeman proximally hydroxyapatite-coated femoral component is therefore a dependable implant and its continued use can be recommended.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 6 | Pages 750 - 756
1 Jun 2009
Mannan K Scott G

We describe the survivorship of the Medial Rotation total knee replacement (TKR) at ten years in 228 cemented primary replacements implanted between October 1994 and October 2006, with their clinical and radiological outcome. This implant has a highly congruent medial compartment, with the femoral component represented by a portion of a sphere which articulates with a matched concave surface on the medial side of the tibial insert.

There were 78 men (17 bilateral TKRs) and 111 women (22 bilateral TKRs) with a mean age of 67.9 years (28 to 90). All the patients were assessed clinically and radiologically using the American Knee Society scoring systems. The mean follow-up was for six years (1 to 13) with only two patients lost to follow-up and 34 dying during the period of study, one of whom had required revision for infection.

There were 11 revisions performed in total, three for aseptic loosening, six for infection, one for a periprosthetic fracture and one for a painful but well-fixed replacement performed at another centre.

With revision for any cause as the endpoint, the survival at ten years was 94.5% (95% CI 85.1 to 100), and with aseptic loosening as the endpoint 98.4% (95% CI 93 to 100). The mean American Knee Society score improved from 47.6 (0 to 88) to 72.2 (26 to 100) and for function from 45.1 (0 to 100) to 93.1 (45 to 100). Radiological review failed to detect migration in any of the surviving knees.

The clinical and radiological results of the Medial Rotation TKR are satisfactory at ten years. The increased congruence of the medial compartment has not led to an increased rate of loosening and continued use can be supported.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 6 | Pages 712 - 715
1 Jun 2006
Khanduja V Tek V Scott G

The aim of this study was to assess whether a femoral component which retained the neck reduced the incidence of leg-length inequality following total hip arthroplasty. A retrospective review was undertaken of 130 consecutive primary total hip arthroplasties performed between April 1996 and April 2004 using such an implant. There were 102 suitable patients for the study. Standardised pre- and post-operative pelvic radiographs were measured by an independent investigator to the nearest millimetre.

The leg-length inequality was reduced from a mean pre-operative value of −0.71 cm to a mean of 0.11 cm post-operatively. Of the 102 patients 24 (23.5%) had an equal leg-length post-operatively, and 95 (93.1%) had a leg-length inequality between −1 cm and 1 cm.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 6 | Pages 796 - 799
1 Jun 2005
Lakdawala A Todo S Scott G

We investigated the changes in surface roughness of retrieved femoral components in 18 men and four women at revision knee surgery. The mean age at revision was 68.4 years and the mean period of implantation was for 55.6 months. Eighteen implants were retrieved for aseptic loosening and four for infection. The surface changes in the articulating areas were inspected visually and the roughness (Ra) analysed with a profilometer. Parallel scratching and burnishing were the two main forms of damage. The mean Ra measurements in the articulating areas showed no statistically significant difference when compared with those in a control area on either side of the patellar groove at the apex of the femoral flange. This suggests that it is not essential to revise a well-fixed and correctly aligned femoral component where the polished surface has become burnished or bears fine parallel scratches, if the revision is conducted solely for failure of the tibial component.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1089 - 1089
1 Sep 2004

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 3 | Pages 366 - 370
1 Apr 2003
Skinner JA Kroon PO Todo S Scott G

We describe the survival at ten years of 100 femoral components of the Freeman hip prosthesis. It is proximally hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated and was fixed without cement. Radiological assessment identified radiolucent lines (RLLs) and lytic lesions and was used to measure migration.

The criterion of failure was revision or impending revision for aseptic femoral loosening. No femoral components were revised or are awaiting revision for aseptic loosening, giving 100% survival at ten years (95% confidence interval, 95.7 to 100), although 59 were at risk at ten years. Two components were revised for fracture of a ceramic head with damage to the trunnion. Although well fixed in each, for survival analysis we evaluated the hip as if the patient had died.

Twelve acetabular components were revised and at each operation the femoral component was found to be well fixed, was not disturbed and remained in the survival analysis. Three patients were lost to follow-up, and 12 died with well-functioning prostheses. Radiologically, all except one of the components appeared to be well fixed with no RLLs and no lytic lesions at the latest follow-up. The mean vertical migration was 0.4 mm at one year, 0.8 mm at two years and 1.4 mm at ten years. One component had migrated 7.6 mm at ten years (2.1 mm in year 1) and developed RLLs in Gruen zones I and II. The symptoms, however, were only minor and revision was not indicated.

Our study has shown that proximal HA coating gives effective fixation for a femoral component.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 2 | Pages 182 - 186
1 Mar 2003
Jeffery M Scott G Freeman M

We have reviewed 29 patients (30 hips) who had undergone revision total hip arthroplasty using a Freeman metal-backed acetabular component and acetabular impaction allografting. The mean follow-up was for 15.3 years (12 to 17).

Five patients (5 hips) died with the prosthesis in situ and four (4 hips) were lost to follow-up. Twelve hips had failed and in the remaining nine there were minor symptoms. The mean time to failure requiring further surgery was nine years. Excluding patients who were lost to follow-up or had died, 72% of the hips were radiologically loose at the last review. The commonest pattern in those requiring revision was failure of the reinforcement ring in adduction with remodelling of the medial wall.

Of the nine patients who had not undergone revision, one with bilateral replacements had no current radiographs and only three of the remaining seven replacements had no radiological signs of loosening.

The short-term results for this technique have been reported to be satisfactory, but in the long term they are not. The factors associated with failure include the design of the prosthesis, which has been implicated in disappointing long-term results when used in primary arthroplasty, but not with the frequency of failure found in this series. It seems that the reliance on peripheral screw fixation over a bed of allograft without bridging the graft does not provide sufficient stability to allow incorporation of the graft.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 1 | Pages 45 - 51
1 Jan 2003
Skinner JA Todo S Taylor M Wang JS Pinskerova V Scott G

We have compared the survival and radiological outcome at ten years after total hip replacement using two techniques for preparing the femoral canal. The same prosthesis was used throughout and all operations were performed by the same surgical team. In technique 1 the canal was over-reamed by 2 mm and in technique 2 it was reamed to the same size as the prosthesis. Technique 1 was performed on 92 patients and technique 2 on 97 patients.

The survival at ten years was 97.2% (90.6 to 99.2) for technique 1 and 98.8% (92.9 to 99.8) for technique 2. Vertical migration was greater in technique 1 (1.8 mm versus 1.0 mm at five years; p = 0.36). There were significantly more lytic lesions and radiolucent lines at five years (p = 0.0061) with technique 1. We conclude that technique 2 is not worse and may produce better long- term results than current teaching suggests.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 4 | Pages 550 - 555
1 May 2002
Iwaki H Scott G Freeman MAR

We studied 185 total hip replacements and related the identification of radiolucent lines (RLLs) at two years to the later development of lytic lesions and loosening. Linear polyethylene wear was also measured.

RLLs appeared in 34 hips at a mean of 2.0 years after operation, and lytic lesions in ten hips at 5.7 years. Of 151 THRs without RLLs there was neither rapid migration nor loosening and only one developed a possible lytic lesion. Of 23 hips with non-progressive RLLs there was neither rapid migration nor loosening, but six developed a lytic lesion. By contrast, 11 THRs with progressive RLLs migrated rapidly and seven developed a lytic lesion. Six THRs with progressive RLLs failed. The wear rates were the same in all groups, although limited numbers were available for study.

If the surgeon achieves secure initial fixation as shown by slow or no migration and no RLLs during the first two years, it is likely that no lytic lesions will develop by five years or aseptic loosening by ten years. If an imperfect, but adequate, interface is achieved, as shown by slow migration and non-progressive RLLs lytic lesions adjacent to the RLLs may develop by five years, but aseptic loosening will be unlikely at ten. Insecure initial fixation, as shown by more rapid migration and progressive RLLs at two years, is likely to lead to the formation of lytic lesions at five years and loosening at ten. The outcome after THR is therefore determined at the initial operation and may be predicted at two years. The presence of lytic lesions reflects soft tissue at the interface as shown by the RLLs which accompany and promote loosening but, in our study, did not cause it.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1087 - 1087
1 Sep 2000
Scott G

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 4 | Pages 506 - 507
1 May 2000
Robertsson O Scott G Freeman MAR

We report a ten-year rate of survival of 96% for the cemented Freeman-Samuelson knee arthroplasty in patients from the Swedish Knee Registry and the Royal London Hospital with revision for aseptic loosening as the criterion for failure.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 5 | Pages 937 - 937
1 Sep 1998
Scott G

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 5 | Pages 844 - 848
1 Sep 1997
Kobayashi A Freeman MAR Bonfield W Kadoya Y Yamac T Al-Saffar N Scott G Revell PA

Our aim was to analyse the influence of the size, shape and number of particles on the pathogenesis of osteolysis. We obtained peri-implant tissues from 18 patients having revision surgery for aseptically loosened Freeman total knee replacements (10), Charnley total hip replacements (3) and Imperial College/London Hospital double-cup surface hip replacements (5). The size and shape of the polyethylene particles were characterised using SEM and their concentration was calculated. The results were analysed with reference to the presence of radiological osteolysis.

The concentration of polyethylene particles in 6 areas with osteolysis was significantly higher than that in 12 areas without osteolysis. There were no significant differences between the size and shape of the particles in these two groups.

We conclude that the most critical factor in the pathogenesis of osteolysis is the concentration of polyethylene particles accumulated in the tissue.