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Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 10, Issue 4 | Pages 5 - 11
1 Aug 2021
Kurien T Scammell BE

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 | Pages 1033 - 1039
1 Jun 2021
Coughlin T Norrish AR Scammell BE Matthews PA Nightingale J Ollivere BJ


Following cast removal for nonoperatively treated distal radius fractures, rehabilitation facilitated by advice leaflet and advice video were compared to a course of face-to-face therapy.


Adults with an isolated, nonoperatively treated distal radius fracture were included at six weeks post-cast removal. Participants were randomized to delivery of rehabilitation interventions in one of three ways: an advice leaflet; an advice video; or face-to-face therapy session(s). The primary outcome measure was the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score at six weeks post intervention and secondary outcome measures included DASH at one year, DASH work subscale, grip strength, and range of motion at six weeks and one year.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 | Pages 1031 - 1032
1 Jun 2021
Coughlin T Norrish AR Scammell BE Matthews PA Nightingale J Ollivere BJ

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1670 - 1674
5 Dec 2020
Khan T Middleton R Alvand A Manktelow ARJ Scammell BE Ollivere BJ


To determine mortality risk after first revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) for periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF), and to compare this to mortality risk after primary and first revision THA for other common indications.


The study cohort consisted of THAs recorded in the National Joint Registry between 2003 and 2015, linked to national mortality data. First revision THAs for PFF, infection, dislocation, and aseptic loosening were identified. We used a flexible parametric model to estimate the cumulative incidence function of death at 90 days, one year, and five years following first revision THA and primary THA, in the presence of further revision as a competing risk. Analysis covariates were age, sex, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1409 - 1415
1 Nov 2018
Marson BA Deshmukh SR Grindlay DJC Ollivere BJ Scammell BE


Local antibiotics are used in the surgical management of foot infection in diabetic patients. This systematic review analyzes the available evidence of the use of local antibiotic delivery systems as an adjunct to surgery.

Materials and Methods

Databases were searched to identify eligible studies and 13 were identified for inclusion.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 6 | Pages 703 - 711
1 Jun 2018
Marson BA Deshmukh SR Grindlay DJC Scammell BE


The aim of this review was to evaluate the available literature and to calculate the pooled sensitivity and specificity for the different alpha-defensin test systems that may be used to diagnose prosthetic joint infection (PJI).

Materials and Methods

Studies using alpha-defensin or Synovasure (Zimmer Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) to diagnose PJI were identified from systematic searches of electronic databases. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS) tool. Meta-analysis was completed using a bivariate model.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 4_Supple_B | Pages 17 - 25
1 Apr 2017
Khan T Grindlay D Ollivere BJ Scammell BE Manktelow ARJ Pearson RG


The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of Vancouver type B2 and B3 fractures by performing a systematic review of the methods of surgical treatment which have been reported.

Materials and Methods

A systematic search was performed in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. For inclusion, studies required a minimum of ten patients with a Vancouver type B2 and/or ten patients with a Vancouver type B3 fracture, a minimum mean follow-up of two years and outcomes which were matched to the type of fracture. Studies were also required to report the rate of re-operation as an outcome measure. The protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1264 - 1270
1 Sep 2015
Karantana A Scammell BE Davis TRC Whynes DK

This study compares the cost-effectiveness of treating dorsally displaced distal radial fractures with a volar locking plate and percutaneous fixation. It was performed from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) using data from a single-centre randomised controlled trial. In total 130 patients (18 to 73 years of age) with a dorsally displaced distal radial fracture were randomised to treatment with either a volar locking plate (n = 66) or percutaneous fixation (n = 64). The methodology was according to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for technology appraisals. .

There were no significant differences in quality of life scores between groups at any time point in the study. Both groups returned to baseline one year post-operatively.

NHS costs for the plate group were significantly higher (p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval 497 to 930). For an additional £713, fixation with a volar locking plate offered 0.0178 additional quality-adjusted life years in the year after surgery. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for plate fixation relative to percutaneous fixation at list price was £40 068. When adjusting the prices of the implants for a 20% hospital discount, the ICER was £31 898. Patients who underwent plate fixation did not return to work earlier.

We found no evidence to support the cost-effectiveness, from the perspective of the NHS, of fixation using a volar locking plate over percutaneous fixation for the operative treatment of a dorsally displaced radial fracture.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1264–70.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 5 | Pages 583 - 597
1 May 2013
Kurien T Pearson RG Scammell BE

We reviewed 59 bone graft substitutes marketed by 17 companies currently available for implantation in the United Kingdom, with the aim of assessing the peer-reviewed literature to facilitate informed decision-making regarding their use in clinical practice. After critical analysis of the literature, only 22 products (37%) had any clinical data. Norian SRS (Synthes), Vitoss (Orthovita), Cortoss (Orthovita) and Alpha-BSM (Etex) had Level I evidence. We question the need for so many different products, especially with limited published clinical evidence for their efficacy, and conclude that there is a considerable need for further prospective randomised trials to facilitate informed decision-making with regard to the use of current and future bone graft substitutes in clinical practice.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:583–97.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 5 | Pages 658 - 664
1 May 2011
Karantana A Boulton C Bouliotis G Shu KSS Scammell BE Moran CG

We examined prospectively collected data from 6782 consecutive hip fractures and identified 327 fractures in 315 women aged ≤65 years. We report on their demographic characteristics, treatment and outcome and compare them with a cohort of 4810 hip fractures in 4542 women aged > 65 years.

The first significant increase in age-related incidence of hip fracture was at 45, rather than 50, which is when screening by the osteoporosis service starts in most health areas. Hip fractures in younger women are sustained by a population at risk as a result of underlying disease. Mortality of younger women with hip fracture was 46 times the background mortality of the female population. Smoking had a strong influence on the relative risk of ‘early’ (≤ 65 years of age) fracture.

Lag screw fixation was the most common method of operative treatment. General complication rates were low, as were re-operation rates for cemented prostheses. Kaplan-Meier implant survivorship of displaced intracapsular fractures treated by reduction and lag screw fixation was 71% (95% confidence interval 56 to 81) at five years. The best form of treatment remains controversial.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1537 - 1540
1 Nov 2009
Khan WS Dunne NJ Huntley JS Joyce T Reichert ILH Snelling S Scammell BE

This paper outlines the recent development of an exchange Travelling Fellowship scheme between the British and American Orthopaedic Research Societies.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 4 | Pages 588 - 593
1 May 2003
Pickering SAW Bayston R Scammell BE

Infection of orthopaedic implants is a significant problem, with increased antibiotic resistance of adherent ‘biofilm’ bacteria causing difficulties in treatment. We have investigated the in vitro effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the efficacy of antibiotics in the treatment of infection of implants.

Five-day biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis were grown on the tips of stainless-steel pegs. They were exposed for 12 hours to varying concentrations of gentamicin or vancomycin in microtitre trays at 37°C and 5% CO2. The test group were exposed to a PEMF. The control tray was not exposed to a PEMF. After exposure to antibiotic the pegs were incubated overnight, before standard plating onto blood agar for colony counting.

Exposure to a PEMF increased the effectiveness of gentamicin against the five-day biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis. In three of five experiments there was reduction of at least 50% in the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration. In a fourth experiment there was a two-log difference in colony count at 160 mg/l of gentamicin. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed an effect by a PEMF on the efficacy of gentamicin which was significant at p < 0.05. There was no significant effect with vancomycin.