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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1413 - 1419
1 Nov 2017
Solan MC Sakellariou A

The posterior malleolus component of a fracture of the ankle is important, yet often overlooked. Pre-operative CT scans to identify and classify the pattern of the fracture are not used enough. Posterior malleolus fractures are not difficult to fix. After reduction and fixation of the posterior malleolus, the articular surface of the tibia is restored; the fibula is out to length; the syndesmosis is more stable and the patient can rehabilitate faster. There is therefore considerable merit in fixing most posterior malleolus fractures. An early post-operative CT scan to ensure that accurate reduction has been achieved should also be considered.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1413–19.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 7 | Pages 851 - 855
1 Jul 2017
Gougoulias N Sakellariou A

Stable fractures of the ankle can be safely treated non-operatively. It is also gradually being recognised that the integrity of the ‘medial column’ is essential for the stability of the fracture. It is generally thought that bi- and tri-malleolar fractures are unstable, as are pronation external rotation injuries resulting in an isolated high fibular fracture (Weber type-C), where the deltoid ligament is damaged or the medial malleolus fractured. However, how best to identify unstable, isolated, trans-syndesmotic Weber type-B supination external rotation (SER) fractures of the lateral malleolus remains controversial.

We provide a rationale as to how to classify SER distal fibular fractures using weight-bearing radiographs, and how this can help guide the management of these common injuries.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:851–5.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1317 - 1319
1 Oct 2013
Gougoulias N Dawe EJC Sakellariou A

Most posterior hindfoot procedures have been described with the patient positioned prone. This affords excellent access to posterior hindfoot structures but has several disadvantages for the management of the airway, the requirement for an endotracheal tube in all patients, difficulty with ventilation and an increased risk of pressure injuries, especially with regard to reduced ocular perfusion.

We describe use of the ‘recovery position’, which affords equivalent access to the posterior aspect of the ankle and hindfoot without the morbidity associated with the prone position. A laryngeal mask rather than endotracheal tube may be used in most patients. In this annotation we describe this technique, which offers a safe and simple alternative method of positioning patients for posterior hindfoot and ankle surgery.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1317–19.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 4 | Pages 574 - 578
1 May 2000
Sakellariou A Sallomi D Janzen DL Munk PL Claridge RJ Kiri VA

We analysed 42 weight-bearing lateral radiographs of the ankle, 20 of which were from patients with a clinical and plain radiological diagnosis of talocalcaneal coalition (TCC) who subsequently had CT. The remainder were from 22 healthy volunteers with no clinical findings suggestive of hindfoot pathology. Four observers, blinded to the CT findings, independently evaluated the radiographs on two separate occasions.

With the 95% confidence interval and using the CT findings as the comparison we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values for the C-sign, and for other signs known to be associated with TCC. Similarly, we also calculated the interobserver and intraobserver reliability for these signs using the kappa statistic.

Our results suggest that the C-sign is highly sensitive and specific for TCC. It is an accurate indicator and significantly more reliable than other previously recognised radiological signs of TCC. Features of the C-sign, however, cannot be relied upon to indicate whether the TCC is fibrous or bony.