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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1334 - 1340
1 Oct 2011
Nicholson JA Sutherland AG Smith FW

Abnormal knee kinematics following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament may exist despite an apparent resolution of tibial laxity and functional benefit. We performed upright, weight-bearing MR scans of both knees in the sagittal plane at different angles of flexion to determine the kinematics of the knee following unilateral reconstruction (n = 12). The uninjured knee acted as a control. Scans were performed pre-operatively and at three and six months post-operatively. Anteroposterior tibial laxity was determined using an arthrometer and patient function by validated questionnaires before and after reconstruction. In all the knees with deficient anterior cruciate ligaments, the tibial plateau was displaced anteriorly and internally rotated relative to the femur when compared with the control contralateral knee, particularly in extension and early flexion (mean lateral compartment displacement: extension 7.9 mm (sd 4.8), p = 0.002 and 30° flexion 5.1 mm (sd 3.6), p = 0.004). In all ten patients underwent post-operative scans. Reconstruction reduced the subluxation of the lateral tibial plateau at three months, with resolution of anterior displacement in early flexion, but not in extension (p = 0.015). At six months, the reconstructed knee again showed anterior subluxation in both the lateral (mean: extension 4.2 mm (sd 4.2), p = 0.021 and 30° flexion 3.2 mm (sd 3.3), p = 0.024) and medial compartments (extension, p = 0.049).

Our results show that despite improvement in laxity and functional benefit, abnormal knee kinematics remain at six months and actually deteriorate from three to six months following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1096 - 1099
1 Aug 2010
Sutherland AG Cooper K Alexander LA Nicol M Smith FW Scotland TR

We identified a series of 128 patients who had unilateral open reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by a single surgeon between 1993 and 2000. In all, 79 patients were reviewed clinically and radiologically eight to 15 years after surgery. Assessment included measurement of the Lysholm and Tegner scores, the ACL quality-of-life score and the Short Form-12 score, as well as the International Knee Documentation Committee clinical assessment, measurement of laxity by the KT-1000 arthrometer, a single-leg hop test and standardised radiography of both knees using the uninjured knee as a control.

Of the injured knees, 46 (57%) had definite radiological evidence of osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or 3), with a mean difference between the injured and non-injured knees of 1.2 grades. The median ACL quality-of-life score was 80 (interquartile range (IQR) 60 to 90), the Lysholm score 84 (IQR 74 to 95), the Short Form-12 physical component score 54 (IQR 49 to 56) and the mean Hop Index 0.94 (0.52 to 1.52). In total 58 patients were graded as normal, 20 as nearly normal and one as abnormal on the KT-1000 assessment and pivot-shift testing. Taking the worst-case scenario of assuming all non-attenders (n = 48), two septic failures and one identified unstable knee found at review to be failures, the failure rate was 40%. Only two of the patients reviewed stated that they would not have similar surgery again.

Open reconstruction of the ACL gives good, durable functional results, but with a high rate of radiologically evident osteoarthritis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 1 | Pages 138 - 140
1 Jan 2009
Sutherland AG Barrow A Mulhall K Meek RMD Pollock R Poon P Williams R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 4 | Pages 486 - 488
1 May 2000
Sutherland AG Hutchinson JD Alexander DA

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 3 | Pages 462 - 463
1 Apr 2000

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 1 | Pages 9 - 10
1 Jan 2000
Sutherland AG Craig N Maffulli N Brooksbank A Moir JS

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 1 | Pages 6 - 7
1 Jan 1998
Moir JS Sutherland AG Maffulli N