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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 6 | Pages 908 - 913
1 Nov 1997
Masterson EL Masri BA Duncan CP Rosenberg A Cabanela M Gross M

An analysis of the cement mantle obtained with the Exeter impaction allografting system at one centre showed that it was either deficient or absent in almost 47% of Gruen zones. We therefore examined the mantle obtained using this system at another hospital and compared the results with those from the CPT and Harris Precoat Systems at other centres.

The surgical indications for the procedure and the patient details were broadly similar in all four hospitals. There was some variation in the frequency of use of cortical strut allografts, cerclage wires and wire mesh to supplement the impaction allograft. Analysis of the cement mantles showed that when uncertain Gruen zones were excluded, the incidence of zones with areas of absence or deficiency of the cement was 47% and 50%, respectively, for the two centres using the Exeter system, 21% for the CPT system and 18% for the Harris Precoat system.

We measured the difference in size between the proximal allograft impactors and the definitive prosthesis for each system. The Exeter system impactors are shorter than the definitive prosthesis and taper sharply so that the cavity created is inadequate, especially distally. The CPT proximal impactors are considerably longer than the definitive prosthesis and are designed to give a mantle of approximately 2 mm medially and laterally and 1.5 mm anteriorly and posteriorly. The Harris Precoat proximal impactors allow for a mantle with a circumference of 0.75 mm in the smaller sizes and 1 mm in the larger.

Many reports link the longevity of a cemented implant to the adequacy of the cement mantle. For this reason, femoral impaction systems require careful design to achieve a cement mantle which is uninterrupted in its length and adequate in its thickness. Our results suggest that some current systems require modification.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 72-B, Issue 6 | Pages 966 - 970
1 Nov 1990
Maloney W Jasty M Rosenberg A Harris W

We have reviewed 25 cases of focal femoral osteolysis in radiographically stable, cemented femoral implants. In three hips retrieved at post-mortem from two patients, we have been able to make a detailed biomechanical and histological analysis. The interval between arthroplasty and the appearance of focal osteolysis on clinical radiographs ranged from 40 to 168 months, and in over 70% of the cases this did not appear until after five or more years. Few had significant pain and there was no relation to age, sex or original diagnosis. The most common site for osteolysis were Gruen zones 2 and 3 on the anteroposterior radiograph and zones 5 and 6 on the lateral radiograph. In 15 cases (60%), the area of osteolysis corresponded to either a defect in the cement mantle or an area of very thin cement. The rate of progression of these lesions was variable, but to date only one has progressed to gross loosening of the femoral component. The back-scatter scanning electron microscopic examination of serial sections and biomechanical testing of the post-mortem specimens demonstrated focal cement fracture around implants that were otherwise rigidly fixed. In eight cases from which tissue was available, histology showed a histiocytic reaction with evidence of particulate polymethylmethacrylate. We consider that this local fragmentation was the stimulus for local osteolysis in an otherwise stable cemented femoral component.