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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 6 | Pages 906 - 913
1 Nov 1995
Robinson C McLauchlan G Christie J McQueen M Court-Brown C

We reviewed the results of the treatment of 30 tibial fractures with minor to severe bone loss in 29 patients by early soft-tissue and bony debridement followed by primary locked intramedullary nailing. Subsequent definitive closure was obtained within the first 48 hours usually with a soft-tissue flap, and followed by bone-grafting procedures which were delayed for six to eight weeks after the primary surgery. The time to fracture union and the eventual functional outcome were related to the severity and extent of bone loss. Twenty-nine fractures were soundly united at a mean of 53.4 weeks, with delayed amputation in only one patient. Poor functional outcome and the occurrence of complications were usually due to a departure from the standard protocol for primary management. We conclude that the protocol produces satisfactory results in the management of these difficult fractures, and that intramedullary nailing offers considerable practical advantages over other methods of primary bone stabilisation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 5 | Pages 781 - 787
1 Sep 1995
Robinson C McLauchlan G McLean I Court-Brown C

We reviewed 63 patients with fractures of the distal tibial metaphysis, with or without minimally displaced extension into the ankle joint. The fractures had been caused by two distinct mechanisms, either a direct bending force or a twisting injury. This influenced the pattern of the fracture and its time to union. All fractures were managed by statically locked intramedullary nailing, with some modifications of the procedure used for diaphyseal fractures. There were few intra-operative complications. At a mean of 46 months, all but five patients had a satisfactory functional outcome. The poor outcomes were associated with either technical error or the presence of other injuries. We conclude that closed intramedullary nailing is a safe and effective method of managing these fractures.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 3 | Pages 456 - 459
1 May 1995
Christie J Robinson C Singer B Ray D

We randomised 24 patients before they had a cemented hemiarthroplasty for hip fracture to receive either thorough or minimal saline lavage of the femoral canal. We then determined the effect in each group on the thromboembolic and cardiopulmonary responses to the pressurised insertion of cement, using transoesophageal echocardiography to show the echogenic embolic response. We found a statistically significant reduction in both the duration of the response and the number of large emboli in patients who had had thorough lavage as compared with the control group with minimal lavage. There was also less disturbance of pulmonary function, as assessed by the change in end-tidal CO2 levels and oxygen saturation, in patients who had thorough lavage. Three patients had a significant fall in blood pressure during cement insertion; all had only minimal lavage. We consider that thorough lavage should be an essential part of the preparation of the proximal femur before cement insertion.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 3 | Pages 450 - 455
1 May 1995
Christie J Robinson C Pell A McBirnie J Burnett R

We performed transoesophageal echocardiography in 111 operations (110 patients) which included medullary reaming for fresh fractures of the femur and tibia, pathological lesions of the femur, and hemiarthroplasty of the hip. Embolic events of varying intensity were seen in 97 procedures and measured pulmonary responses correlated with the severity of embolic phenomena. Twenty-four out of the 25 severe embolic responses occurred while reaming pathological lesions or during cemented hemiarthroplasty of the hip and, overall, pathological lesions produced the most severe responses. Paradoxical embolisation occurred in four patients, all with pathological lesions of the femur (21%); two died. In 12 patients large coagulative masses became trapped in the heart. Extensive pulmonary thromboembolism with reamed bone and immature clot was found at post-mortem in two patients; there was severe systemic embolisation of fat and marrow in one who had a patent foramen ovale and widespread mild systemic fat embolisation in the other without associated foraminal defect. Sequential analysis of blood from the right atrium in five patients showed considerable activation of clotting cascades during reaming.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 75-B, Issue 6 | Pages 976 - 976
1 Nov 1993
Keating J Robinson C Court-Brown C McQueen M Christie J

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 4 | Pages 558 - 562
1 Jul 1992
Robinson C Bell K Court-Brown C McQueen M

We report the results of locked Seidel nailing for 30 fractures of the humerus. There were frequent technical difficulties at operation especially with the locking mechanisms. Protrusion of the nail above the greater tuberosity occurred in 12 cases, usually due to inadequate locking, and resulted in shoulder pain and poor function. Poor shoulder function was also seen in five patients with no nail protrusion, presumably because of local rotator cuff damage during insertion. Our results suggest that considerable modifications are required to the nail, and possibly to its site of insertion, before its use can be advocated.