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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 5 | Pages 603 - 609
1 May 2018
Schnetzke M Rick S Raiss P Walch G Loew M


The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of using an anatomical short-stem shoulder prosthesis to treat primary osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint.

Patients and Methods

A total of 66 patients (67 shoulders) with a mean age of 76 years (63 to 92) were available for clinical and radiological follow-up at two different timepoints (T1, mean 2.6 years, sd 0.5; T2, mean 5.3 years, sd 0.7). Postoperative radiographs were analyzed for stem angle, cortical contact, and filling ratio of the stem. Follow-up radiographs were analyzed for timing and location of bone adaptation (cortical bone narrowing, osteopenia, spot welds, and condensation lines). The bone adaptation was classified as low (between zero and three features of bone remodelling around the humeral stem) or high (four or more features).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 3 | Pages 318 - 323
1 Mar 2018
Raiss P Alami G Bruckner T Magosch P Habermeyer P Boileau P Walch G


The aim of this study was to analyze the results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) in patients with type 1 sequelae of a fracture of the proximal humerus in association with rotator cuff deficiency or severe stiffness of the shoulder.

Patients and Methods

A total of 38 patients were included: 28 women and ten men. Their mean age at the time of arthroplasty was 73 years (54 to 91). Before the RSA, 18 patients had been treated with open reduction and internal fixation following a fracture. A total of 22 patients had a rotator cuff tear and 11 had severe stiffness of the shoulder with < 0° of external rotation. The mean follow-up was 4.3 years (1.5 to 10). The Constant score and the range of movement of the shoulder were recorded preoperatively and at final follow-up.

Preoperatively, radiographs in two planes were performed, as well as CT or arthro-CT scans; radiographs were also performed at final follow-up.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 7 | Pages 939 - 943
1 Jul 2017
Sowa B Bochenek M Bülhoff M Zeifang F Loew M Bruckner T Raiss P


Promising medium-term results from total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) have been reported for the treatment of primary osteoarthritis in young and middle-aged patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional and radiological outcome of TSA in the middle-aged patient.

Patients and Methods

The data of all patients from the previous medium-term study were available. At a mean follow-up of 13 years (8 to 17), we reviewed 21 patients (12 men, nine women, 21 shoulders) with a mean age of 55 years (37 to 60). The Constant-Murley score (CS) with its subgroups and subjective satisfaction were measured. Radiological signs of implant loosening were analysed.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1260 - 1264
1 Sep 2012
Raiss P Lin A Mizuno N Melis B Walch G

A total of 12 epileptic patients (14 shoulders) with recurrent seizures and anterior dislocations of the shoulder underwent a Latarjet procedure and were reviewed at a mean of 8.3 years (1 to 20) post-operatively. Mean forward flexion decreased from 165° (100° to 180°) to 160° (90° to 180°) (p = 0.5) and mean external rotation from 54° (10° to 90°) to 43° (5° to 75°) (p = 0.058). The mean Rowe score was 76 (35 to 100) at the final follow-up. Radiologically, all shoulders showed a glenoid-rim defect and Hill-Sachs lesions pre-operatively. Osteo-arthritic changes of the glenohumeral joint were observed in five shoulders (36%) pre-operatively and in eight shoulders (57%) post-operatively. Re-dislocation during a seizure occurred in six shoulders (43%). Five of these patients underwent revision surgery using a bone buttress from the iliac crest and two of these patients re-dislocated due to a new seizure.

Due to the unacceptably high rate of re-dislocation after surgery in these patients, the most important means of reducing the incidence of further dislocation is the medical management of the seizures. The Latarjet procedure should be reserved for the well-controlled patient with epilepsy who has recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder during activities of daily living.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 5 | Pages 671 - 677
1 May 2012
Raiss P Sowa B Bruckner T Eck S Woerz S Rohr K Rickert M Kasten P

The aim of this study was to compare a third-generation cementing procedure for glenoid components with a new technique for cement pressurisation. In 20 pairs of scapulae, 20 keeled and 20 pegged glenoid components were implanted using either a third-generation cementing technique (group 1) or a new pressuriser (group 2). Cement penetration was measured by three-dimensional (3D) analysis of micro-CT scans. The mean 3D depth of penetration of the cement was significantly greater in group 2 (p < 0.001). The mean thickness of the cement mantle for keeled glenoids was 2.50 mm (2.0 to 3.3) in group 1 and 5.18 mm (4.4 to 6.1) in group 2, and for pegged glenoids it was 1.72 mm (0.9 to 2.3) in group 1 and 5.63 mm (3.6 to 6.4) in group 2. A cement mantle < 2 mm was detected less frequently in group 2 (p < 0.001). Using the cement pressuriser the proportion of cement mantles < 2 mm was significantly reduced compared with the third-generation cementing technique.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1403 - 1409
1 Oct 2010
Pape G Zeifang F Bruckner T Raiss P Rickert M Loew M

Fractures of the proximal humerus can lead to malalignment of the humeral head, necrosis and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. In such cases surface replacement might be a promising option.

A total of 28 shoulders with glenohumeral arthritis subsequent to a fracture underwent surface replacement arthroplasty of the humeral head in patients with a mean age of 60 years (35 to 83). On the basis of the inclination of the impacted head, post-traumatic arthritis was divided into three types: type 1, an impacted fracture of the head in an anatomical position (seven cases); type 2, a valgus impacted fracture (13 cases); type 3, a varus impacted fracture (eight cases). The outcome was measured by means of the Constant score.

According to the Boileau classification of the sequelae of fractures of the proximal humerus, all 28 patients had a final result of intra-capsular category 1. The mean Constant score for the 28 shoulders increased from 23.2 points (2 to 45) pre-operatively to 55.1 points (20 to 89) at a mean of 31 months (24 to 66) post-operatively. Valgus impacted fractures had significantly better results (p < 0.039).

Surface replacement arthroplasty can provide good results for patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the shoulder. Their use avoids post-operative complications of the humeral shaft, such as peri-prosthetic fractures. Further surgery can be undertaken more easily as the bone stock is preserved.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 3 | Pages 387 - 392
1 Mar 2010
Kasten P Pape G Raiss P Bruckner T Rickert M Zeifang F Loew M

We have investigated the mid-term outcome of total shoulder replacement using a keeled cemented glenoid component and a modern cementing technique with regard to the causes of failure and loosening of the components.

Between 1997 and 2003 we performed 96 total shoulder replacements on 88 patients, 24 men and 64 women with a mean age of 69.7 years (31 to 82). The minimum follow-up was five years and at the time of review 87 shoulders (77 patients) were examined at a mean follow-up of 89.1 months (60 to 127). Cumulative survival curves were generated with re-operations (accomplished and planned), survivorship of the proshesis, loosening of the glenoid (defined as tilt > 5° or subsidence > 5 mm), the presence of radiolucent lines and a Constant score of < 30 as the endpoints.

There were two re-operations not involving revision of the implants and the survival rate of the prosthesis was 100.0% for the follow-up period, with an absolute Constant score of > 30 as the endpoint the survival rate was 98%. Radiological glenoid loosening was 9% after five years, and 33% after nine years. There was an incidence of 8% of radiolucent lines in more than three of six zones in the immediate post-operative period, of 37.0% after the first year which increased to 87.0% after nine years. There was no correlation between the score of Boileau and the total Constant score at the latest follow-up, but there was correlation between glenoid loosening and pain (p = 0.001).

We found that total shoulder replacement had an excellent mid-term survivorship and clinical outcome. The surgical and cementing techniques were related to the decrease in radiolucent lines around the glenoid compared with earlier studies. One concern, however, was the fact that radiolucent lines increased over time and there was a rate of glenoid loosening of 9% after five years and 33% after nine years. This suggests that the design of the glenoid component, and the implantation and cementing techniques may need further improvement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 6 | Pages 764 - 769
1 Jun 2008
Raiss P Aldinger PR Kasten P Rickert M Loew M

Our aim in this prospective study was to evaluate the outcome of total shoulder replacement in the treatment of young and middle-aged active patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. We reviewed 21 patients (21 shoulders) with a mean age of 55 years (37 to 60). The mean follow-up was seven years (5 to 9). The same anatomical, third-generation, cemented implant had been used in all patients. All the patients were evaluated radiologically and clinically using the Constant and Murley score.

No patients required revision. In one a tear of the supraspinatus tendon occurred. Overall, 20 patients (95%) were either very satisfied (n = 18) or satisfied (n = 2) with the outcome. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were found for all categories of the Constant and Murley score pre- and post-operatively. The mean Constant and Murley score increased from 24.1 points (10 to 45) to 64.5 points (39 to 93), and the relative score from 30.4% (11% to 50%) to 83% (54% to 116%). No clinical or radiological signs of loosening of the implant were seen.

For young and middle-aged patients with osteoarthritis, third-generation total shoulder replacement is a viable method of treatment with a low rate of complications and excellent results in the mid-term.