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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 3 | Pages 223 - 225
1 Mar 2018
Jones LD Golan D Hanna SA Ramachandran M

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 2 | Pages 274 - 278
1 Feb 2014
Wright J Coggings D Maizen C Ramachandran M

Children with congenital vertical talus (CVT) have been treated with extensive soft-tissue releases, with a high rate of complications. Recently, reverse Ponseti-type casting followed by percutaneous reduction and fixation has been described, with excellent results in separate cohorts of children with CVT, of either idiopathic or teratological aetiology. There are currently no studies that compare the outcome in these two types. We present a prospective cohort of 13 children (21 feet) with CVT of both idiopathic and teratological aetiology, in which this technique has been used. Clinical, radiological and parent-reported outcomes were obtained at a mean follow-up of 36 months (8 to 57). Six children (nine feet) had associated neuromuscular conditions or syndromes; the condition was idiopathic in seven children (12 feet).

Initial correction was achieved in all children, with significant improvement in all radiological parameters. Recurrence was seen in ten feet. Modification of the technique to include limited capsulotomy at the initial operation may reduce the risk of recurrence.

The reverse Ponseti-type technique is effective in the initial correction of CVT of both idiopathic and teratological aetiology. Recurrence is a problem in both these groups, with higher rates than first reported in the original paper. However, these rates are less than those reported after open surgical release.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:274–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 6 | Pages 732 - 737
1 Jun 2013
Kosuge D Yamada N Azegami S Achan P Ramachandran M

The term developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) describes a spectrum of disorders that results in abnormal development of the hip joint. If not treated successfully in childhood, these patients may go on to develop hip symptoms and/or secondary osteoarthritis in adulthood. In this review we describe the altered anatomy encountered in adults with DDH along with the management options, and the challenges associated with hip arthroscopy, osteotomies and arthroplasty for the treatment of DDH in young adults.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:732–7.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 4 | Pages 445 - 451
1 Apr 2013
Azegami S Kosuge D Ramachandran M

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is relatively common in adolescents and results in a complex deformity of the hip that can lead to femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). FAI may be symptomatic and lead to the premature development of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. Current techniques for managing the deformity include arthroscopic femoral neck osteochondroplasty, an arthroscopically assisted limited anterior approach to the hip, surgical dislocation, and proximal femoral osteotomy. Although not a routine procedure to treat FAI secondary to SCFE deformity, peri-acetabular osteotomy has been successfully used to treat FAI caused by acetabular over-coverage. These procedures should be considered for patients with symptoms due to a deformity of the hip secondary to SCFE.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:445–51.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 5 | Pages 584 - 595
1 May 2012
Dartnell J Ramachandran M Katchburian M

A delay in the diagnosis of paediatric acute and subacute haematogenous osteomyelitis can lead to potentially devastating morbidity. There are no definitive guidelines for diagnosis, and recommendations in the literature are generally based on expert opinions, case series and cohort studies.

All articles in the English literature on paediatric osteomyelitis were searched using MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library and reference lists. A total of 1854 papers were identified, 132 of which were examined in detail. All aspects of osteomyelitis were investigated in order to formulate recommendations.

On admission 40% of children are afebrile. The tibia and femur are the most commonly affected long bones. Clinical examination, blood and radiological tests are only reliable for diagnosis in combination. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism detected, but isolation of Kingella kingae is increasing. Antibiotic treatment is usually sufficient to eradicate the infection, with a short course intravenously and early conversion to oral treatment. Surgery is indicated only in specific situations.

Most studies were retrospective and there is a need for large, multicentre, randomised, controlled trials to define protocols for diagnosis and treatment. Meanwhile, evidence-based algorithms are suggested for accurate and early diagnosis and effective treatment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 4 | Pages 441 - 445
1 Apr 2012
Chou DTS Achan P Ramachandran M

The World Health Organization (WHO) launched the first Global Patient Safety Challenge in 2005 and introduced the ‘5 moments of hand hygiene’ in 2009 in an attempt to reduce the burden of health care associated infections. Many NHS trusts in England adopted this model of hand hygiene, which prompts health care workers to clean their hands at five distinct stages of caring for the patient. Our review analyses the scientific foundation for the five moments of hand hygiene and explores the evidence, as referenced by WHO, to support these recommendations. We found no strong scientific support for this regime of hand hygiene as a means of reducing health care associated infections. Consensus-based guidelines based on weak scientific foundations should be assessed carefully to prevent shifting the clinical focus from more important issues and to direct limited resources more effectively.

We recommend caution in the universal adoption of the WHO ‘5 moments of hand hygiene’ by orthopaedic surgeons and other health care workers and emphasise the need for evidence-based principles when adopting hospital guidelines aimed at promoting excellence in clinical practice.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 3 | Pages 290 - 296
1 Mar 2012
Jayakumar P Ramachandran M Youm T Achan P

Hip arthroscopy is particularly attractive in children as it confers advantages over arthrotomy or open surgery, such as shorter recovery time and earlier return to activity. Developments in surgical technique and arthroscopic instrumentation have enabled extension of arthroscopy of the hip to this age group. Potential challenges in paediatric and adolescent hip arthroscopy include variability in size, normal developmental change from childhood to adolescence, and conditions specific to children and adolescents and their various consequences. Treatable disorders include the sequelae of traumatic and sports-related hip joint injuries, Legg–Calve–Perthes’ disease and slipped capital femoral epiphysis, and the arthritic and septic hip. Intra-articular abnormalities are rarely isolated and are often associated with underlying morphological changes.

This review presents the current concepts of hip arthroscopy in the paediatric and adolescent patient, covering clinical assessment and investigation, indications and results of the experience to date, as well as technical challenges and future directions.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1160 - 1164
1 Sep 2011
Jowett CR Morcuende JA Ramachandran M

We present a systematic review of the results of the Ponseti method of management for congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV). Our aims were to assess the method, the effects of modifications to the original method, and compare it with other similar methods of treatment. We found 308 relevant citations in the English literature up to 31 May 2010, of which 74 full-text articles met our inclusion criteria. Our results showed that the Ponseti method provides excellent results with an initial correction rate of around 90% in idiopathic feet. Non-compliance with bracing is the most common cause of relapse. The current best practice for the treatment of CTEV is the original Ponseti method, with minimal adjustments being hyperabduction of the foot in the final cast and the need for longer-term bracing up to four years. Larger comparative studies will be required if other methods are to be recommended.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 262 - 265
1 Feb 2011
Kang S Mangwani J Ramachandran M Paterson JMH Barry M

We present the results of 90 consecutive children with displaced fractures of the forearm treated by elastic stable intramedullary nailing with a mean follow-up of 6.6 months (2.0 to 17.6). Eight (9%) had open fractures and 77 (86%) had sustained a fracture of both bones. The operations were performed by orthopaedic trainees in 78 patients (86%). All fractures healed at a mean of 2.9 months (1.1 to 8.7). There was one case of delayed union of an ulnar fracture. An excellent or good functional outcome was achieved in 76 patients (84%). There was no statistical difference detected when the grade of operating surgeon, age of the patient and the diaphyseal level of the fracture were correlated with the outcome. A limited open reduction was required in 40 fractures (44%).

Complications included seven cases of problematic wounds, two transient palsies of the superficial radial nerve and one case each of malunion and a post-operative compartment syndrome. At final follow-up, all children were pain-free and without limitation of sport and play activities.

Our findings indicate that the functional outcome following paediatric fractures of the forearm treated by elastic stable intramedullary nailing is good, without the need for anatomical restoration of the radial bow.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 2 | Pages 189 - 195
1 Feb 2010
Jayakumar P Barry M Ramachandran M

Non-accidental injury (NAI) in children includes orthopaedic trauma throughout the skeleton. Fractures with soft-tissue injuries constitute the majority of manifestations of physical abuse in children. Fracture and injury patterns vary with age and development, and NAI is intrinsically related to the mobility of the child. No fracture in isolation is pathognomonic of NAI, but specific abuse-related injuries include multiple fractures, particularly at various stages of healing, metaphyseal corner and bucket-handle fractures and fractures of ribs. Isolated or multiple rib fractures, irrespective of location, have the highest specificity for NAI. Other fractures with a high specificity for abuse include those of the scapula, lateral end of the clavicle, vertebrae and complex skull fractures.

Injuries caused by NAI constitute a relatively small proportion of childhood fractures. They may be associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity, with wide- ranging effects from deviations in normal developmental progression to death.

Orthopaedic surgeons must systematically assess, recognise and act on the indicators for NAI in conjunction with the paediatric multidisciplinary team.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1413 - 1418
1 Nov 2009
Al-Nammari SS James BK Ramachandran M

The aim of this study was to determine whether the foundation programme for junior doctors, implemented across the United Kingdom in 2005, provides adequate training in musculoskeletal medicine. We recruited 112 doctors on completion of their foundation programme and assessed them using the Freedman and Bernstein musculoskeletal examination tool. Only 8.9% passed the assessment. Those with exposure to orthopaedics, with a career interest in orthopaedics, and who felt that they had gained adequate exposure to musculoskeletal medicine obtained significantly higher scores. Those interested in general practice as a career obtained significantly lower scores. Only 15% had any exposure to orthopaedics during the foundation programme and only 13% felt they had adequate exposure to musculoskeletal medicine. The foundation programme currently provides inadequate training in musculoskeletal medicine. The quality and quantity of exposure to musculoskeletal medicine during the foundation programme must be improved.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1127 - 1133
1 Sep 2009
Kang S Sanghera T Mangwani J Paterson JMH Ramachandran M

We performed a systematic review of the optimal management of septic arthritis in children as recommended in the current English literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and reference lists of retrieved articles without date restrictions up to 31 January 2009. From 2236 citations, 227 relevant full-text articles were screened in detail; 154 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria, from which conclusions were drawn on the management of infected joints in children.

Our review showed that no single investigation, including joint aspiration, is sufficiently reliable to diagnose conclusively joint infection. The roles of aspiration, arthrotomy and arthroscopy in treatment are not clear cut, and the ideal duration of antibiotic therapy is not yet fully defined. These issues are discussed. Further large-scale, multi-centre studies are needed to delineate the optimal management of paediatric septic arthritis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1228 - 1233
1 Sep 2008
Ramachandran M Skaggs DL Crawford HA Eastwood DM Lalonde FD Vitale MG Do TT Kay RM

The aim of this retrospective multicentre study was to report the continued occurrence of compartment syndrome secondary to paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures in the period 1995 to 2005. The inclusion criteria were children with a closed, low-energy supracondylar fracture with no associated fractures or vascular compromise, who subsequently developed compartment syndrome. There were 11 patients (seven girls and four boys) identified from eight hospitals in three countries. Ten patients with severe elbow swelling documented at presentation had a mean delay before surgery of 22 hours (6 to 64). One patient without severe swelling documented at presentation suffered arterial entrapment following reduction, with a subsequent compartment syndrome requiring fasciotomy 25 hours after the index procedure.

This series is noteworthy, as all patients had low-energy injuries and presented with an intact radial pulse. Significant swelling at presentation and delay in fracture reduction may be important warning signs for the development of a compartment syndrome in children with supracondylar fractures of the humerus.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1369 - 1374
1 Oct 2007
Nelson D Zenios M Ward K Ramachandran M Little DG

The deformity index is a new radiological measurement of the degree of deformity of the femoral head in unilateral Perthes’ disease. Its values represent a continuous outcome measure of deformity incorporating changes in femoral epiphyseal height and width compared with the unaffected side. The sphericity of the femoral head in 30 radiographs (ten normal and 20 from patients with Perthes’ disease) were rated blindly as normal, mild, moderate or severe by three observers. Further blinded measurements of the deformity index were made on two further occasions with intervals of one month.

There was good agreement between the deformity index score and the subjective grading of deformity. Intra- and interobserver agreement for the deformity index was high. The intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficient for each observer was 0.98, 0.99 and 0.97, respectively, while the interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 for the first and 0.97 for the second set of calculations.

We also reviewed retrospectively 96 radiographs of children with Perthes’ disease, who were part of a multicentre trial which followed them to skeletal maturity. We found that the deformity index at two years correlated well with the Stulberg grading at skeletal maturity. A deformity index value above 0.3 was associated with the development of an aspherical femoral head. Using a deformity index value of 0.3 to divide groups for risk gives a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 81% for predicting a Stulberg grade of III or IV.

We conclude that the deformity index at two years is a valid and reliable radiological outcome measure in unilateral Perthes’ disease.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 4 | Pages 425 - 433
1 Apr 2007
Little DG Ramachandran M Schindeler A

The literature on fracture repair has been reviewed. The traditional concepts of delayed and nonunion have been examined in terms of the phased and balanced anabolic and catabolic responses in bone repair. The role of medical manipulation of these inter-related responses in the fracture healing have been considered.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 8 | Pages 981 - 987
1 Aug 2006
Ramachandran M Eastwood DM

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 1 | Pages 90 - 94
1 Jan 2006
Ramachandran M Birch R Eastwood DM

Between 1998 and 2002, 37 neuropathies in 32 patients with a displaced supracondylar fracture of the humerus who were referred to a nerve injury unit were identified. There were 19 boys and 13 girls with a mean age of 7.9 years (3.6 to 11.3). A retrospective review of these injuries was performed. The ulnar nerve was injured in 19, the median nerve in ten and the radial nerve in eight cases. Fourteen neuropathies were noted at the initial presentation and 23 were diagnosed after treatment of the fracture. After referral, exploration of the nerve was planned for 13 patients. Surgery was later cancelled in three because of clinical recovery. Six patients underwent neurolysis alone. Excision of neuroma and nerve grafting were performed in four. At follow-up, 26 patients had an excellent, five a good and one a fair outcome.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1406 - 1410
1 Oct 2005
Ramachandran M Lau K Jones DHA

In five children, six forearms with a fixed pronation deformity secondary to congenital radioulnar synostosis were treated by a derotation osteotomy of the distal radius and the midshaft of the ulna.

There were three boys and two girls with a mean age of 4.9 years (3.5 to 8.25) who were followed up for a mean of 29 months (18 to 43). The position of the forearm was improved from a mean pronation deformity of 68° (40° to 80°) to a pre-planned position of 10° of supination in all cases. Bony union was achieved by 6.3 weeks with no loss of correction. There was one major complication involving a distal radial osteotomy which required exploration for a possible compartment syndrome.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1206 - 1206
1 Nov 2000