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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 9 | Pages 733 - 740
21 Sep 2022
Sacchetti F Aston W Pollock R Gikas P Cuomo P Gerrand C


The proximal tibia (PT) is the anatomical site most frequently affected by primary bone tumours after the distal femur. Reconstruction of the PT remains challenging because of the poor soft-tissue cover and the need to reconstruct the extensor mechanism. Reconstructive techniques include implantation of massive endoprosthesis (megaprosthesis), osteoarticular allografts (OAs), or allograft-prosthesis composites (APCs).


This was a retrospective analysis of clinical data relating to patients who underwent proximal tibial arthroplasty in our regional bone tumour centre from 2010 to 2018.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 1 | Pages 3 - 5
1 Jan 2022
Rajasekaran RB Ashford R Stevenson JD Pollock R Rankin KS Patton JT Gupta S Cosker TDA

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 1 | Pages 119 - 124
1 Jan 2018
Broderick C Hopkins S Mack DJF Aston W Pollock R Skinner JA Warren S


Tuberculosis (TB) infection of bones and joints accounts for 6.7% of TB cases in England, and is associated with significant morbidity and disability. Public Health England reports that patients with TB experience delays in diagnosis and treatment. Our aims were to determine the demographics, presentation and investigation of patients with a TB infection of bones and joints, to help doctors assessing potential cases and to identify avoidable delays.

Patients and Methods

This was a retrospective observational study of all adults with positive TB cultures on specimens taken at a tertiary orthopaedic centre between June 2012 and May 2014. A laboratory information system search identified the patients. The demographics, clinical presentation, radiology, histopathology and key clinical dates were obtained from medical records.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1395 - 1404
1 Oct 2015
Lingutla KK Pollock R Benomran E Purushothaman B Kasis A Bhatia CK Krishna M Friesem T

The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity affects pain, surgical and functional outcomes following lumbar spinal fusion for low back pain (LBP).

A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was made of those studies that compared the outcome of lumbar spinal fusion for LBP in obese and non-obese patients. A total of 17 studies were included in the meta-analysis. There was no difference in the pain and functional outcomes. Lumbar spinal fusion in the obese patient resulted in a statistically significantly greater intra-operative blood loss (weighted mean difference: 54.04 ml; 95% confidence interval (CI) 15.08 to 93.00; n = 112; p = 0.007) more complications (odds ratio: 1.91; 95% CI 1.68 to 2.18; n = 43858; p < 0.001) and longer duration of surgery (25.75 mins; 95% CI 15.61 to 35.90; n = 258; p < 0.001). Obese patients have greater intra-operative blood loss, more complications and longer duration of surgery but pain and functional outcome are similar to non-obese patients. Based on these results, obesity is not a contraindication to lumbar spinal fusion.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1395–1404.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1392 - 1395
1 Oct 2014
Dhinsa BS Gregory JJ Nawabi DH Khan S Pollock R Aston WJ Skinner JA Briggs TWR

In patients with a tumour affecting the distal ulna it is difficult to preserve the function of the wrist following extensive local resection. We report the outcome of 12 patients (nine female, three male) who underwent excision of the distal ulna without local soft-tissue reconstruction. In six patients, an aggressive benign tumour was present and six had a malignant tumour. At a mean follow-up of 64 months (15 to 132) the mean Musculoskeletal Tumour score was 64% (40% to 93%) and the mean DASH score was 35 (10 to 80). The radiological appearances were satisfactory in most patients. Local recurrence occurred in one patient with benign disease and two with malignant disease. The functional outcome was thus satisfactory at a mean follow-up in excess of five years, with a relatively low rate of complications. The authors conclude that complex reconstructive soft-tissue procedures may not be needed in these patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1392–5.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 2 | Pages 250 - 253
1 Feb 2013
Jalgaonkar A Dawson-Bowling SJ Mohan AT Spiegelberg B Saifuddin A Pollock R Skinner JA Briggs TWR Aston W

Local recurrence along the biopsy track is a known complication of percutaneous needle biopsy of malignant musculoskeletal tumours. In order to completely excise the track with the tumour its identification is essential, but this becomes increasingly difficult over time. In an initial prospective study, 22 of 45 patients (48.8%) identified over a three-month period, treated by resection of a musculoskeletal tumour, had an unidentifiable biopsy site at operation, with identification statistically more difficult after 50 days. We therefore introduced the practice of marking the biopsy site with India ink. In all 55 patients undergoing this procedure, the biopsy track was identified pre-operatively (100%); this difference was statistically significant. We recommend this technique as a safe, easy and accurate means of ensuring adequate excision of the biopsy track.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:250–3.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1518 - 1523
1 Nov 2011
Lakkol S Bhatia C Taranu R Pollock R Hadgaonkar S Krishna M

Recurrence of back or leg pain after discectomy is a well-recognised problem with an incidence of up to 28%. Once conservative measures have failed, several surgical options are available and have been tried with varying degrees of success. In this study, 42 patients with recurrent symptoms after discectomy underwent less invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion (LI-PLIF). Clinical outcome was measured using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires and visual analogue scales for back (VAS-BP) and leg pain (VAS-LP). There was a statistically significant improvement in all outcome measures (p < 0.001). The debate around which procedure is the most effective for these patients remains controversial.

Our results show that LI-PLIF is as effective as any other surgical procedure. However, given that it is less invasive, we feel that it should be considered as the preferred option.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 3 | Pages 399 - 403
1 Mar 2011
Griffiths D Gikas PD Jowett C Bayliss L Aston W Skinner J Cannon S Blunn G Briggs TWR Pollock R

Between 1997 and 2007, 68 consecutive patients underwent replacement of the proximal humerus for tumour using a fixed-fulcrum massive endoprosthesis. Their mean age was 46 years (7 to 87). Ten patients were lost to follow-up and 16 patients died. The 42 surviving patients were assessed using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) Score and the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) at a mean follow-up of five years and 11 months (one year to ten years and nine months). The mean MSTS score was 72.3% (53.3% to 100%) and the mean TESS was 77.2% (58.6% to 100%).

Four of 42 patients received a new constrained humeral liner to reduce the risk of dislocation. This subgroup had a mean MSTS score of 77.7% and a mean TESS of 80.0%. The dislocation rate for the original prosthesis was 25.9; none of the patients with the new liner had a dislocation at a mean of 14.5 months (12 to 18).

Endoprosthetic replacement for tumours of the proximal humerus using this prosthesis is a reliable operation yielding good results without the documented problems of unconstrained prostheses. The performance of this prosthesis is expected to improve further with a new constrained humeral liner, which reduces the risk of dislocation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1134 - 1137
1 Aug 2010
Kalson NS Gikas PD Aston W Miles J Blunn G Pollock R Skinner J Briggs TWR Cannon SR

Disarticulation of the hip in patients with high-grade tumours in the upper thigh results in significant morbidity. In patients with no disease of the proximal soft tissue a femoral stump may be preserved, leaving a fulcrum for movement and weight-bearing. We reviewed nine patients in whom the oncological decision would normally be to disarticulate, but who were treated by implantation of an endoprosthesis in order to create a functioning femoral stump. The surgery was undertaken for chondrosarcoma in four patients, pleomorphic sarcoma in three, osteosarcoma in one and fibrous dysplasia in one. At follow-up at a mean of 80 months (34 to 132), seven patients were alive and free from disease, one had died from lung metastases and another from a myocardial infarction. The mean functional outcome assessment was 50 (musculoskeletal tumor society), 50 and 60 (physical and mental Short-form 36 scores).

Implantation of an endoprosthesis into the stump in carefully selected patients allows fitting of an above-knee prosthesis and improves wellbeing and the functional outcome.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1373 - 1377
1 Oct 2009
Spiegelberg BGI Sewell MD Aston WJS Blunn GW Pollock R Cannon SR Briggs TWR

This paper describes the preliminary results of a proximal tibial endoprosthesis which spares the knee joint and enables retention of the natural articulation by replacing part of the tibial metaphysis and diaphysis. In eight patients who had a primary malignant bone tumour of the proximal tibia, the distal stem, which had a hydroxyapatite-coated collar to improve fixation, was cemented into the medullary canal. The proximal end had hydroxyapatite-coated extracortical plates which were secured to the remaining proximal tibial metaphysis using cortical screws. The mean age of the patients at operation was 28.9 years (8 to 43) and the mean follow-up was for 35 months (4 to 48). The mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society score was 79% (57% to 90%), the mean Oxford Knee score was 40 points of 48 (36 to 46) and the mean knee flexion was 112° (100° to 120°). In one patient, revision to a below-knee amputation through the prosthesis was required because of recurrence of the tumour. Another patient sustained a periprosthetic fracture which healed with a painful malunion. This was revised to a further endoprosthesis which replaced the knee.

In the remaining six patients the prosthesis allowed preservation of the knee joint with good function and no early evidence of loosening. Further follow-up is required to assess the longevity of these prostheses.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 1 | Pages 138 - 140
1 Jan 2009
Sutherland AG Barrow A Mulhall K Meek RMD Pollock R Poon P Williams R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1504 - 1508
1 Nov 2007
Bhadra AK Pollock R Tirabosco RP Skinner JAM Cannon SR Briggs TWR Flanagan AM

Four patients who developed malignant synovial tumours are described; one with chondromatosis developed a synovial chondrosarcoma and three with pigmented villonodular synovitis developed malignant change. The relevant literature is discussed.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1367 - 1372
1 Oct 2006
Gupta A Pollock R Cannon SR Briggs TWR Skinner J Blunn G

We used a knee-sparing distal femoral endoprosthesis in young patients with malignant bone tumours of the distal femur in whom it was possible to resect the tumour and to preserve the distal femoral condyles. The proximal shaft of the endoprosthesis had a coated hydroxyapatite collar, while the distal end had hydroxyapatite-coated extracortical plates to secure it to the small residual femoral condylar fragment. We reviewed the preliminary results of this endoprosthesis in eight patients with primary bone tumours of the distal femur. Their mean age at surgery was 17.years (14 to 21). The mean follow-up was 24 months (20 to 31). At final follow-up the mean flexion at the knee was 102° (20° to 120°) and the mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society score was 80% (57% to 96.7%).

There was excellent osteointegration at the prosthesis-proximal bone interface with formation of new bone around the hydroxyapatite collar. The prosthesis allowed preservation of the knee and achieved a good functional result. Formation of new bone and remodelling at the interface make the implant more secure. Further follow-up is required to determine the long-term structural integrity of the prosthesis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 5 | Pages 649 - 654
1 May 2006
Gupta A Meswania J Pollock R Cannon SR Briggs TWR Taylor S Blunn G

We report our early experience with the use of a non-invasive distal femoral expandable endoprosthesis in seven skeletally immature patients with osteosarcoma of the distal femur. The patients had a mean age of 12.1 years (9 to 15) at the time of surgery. The prosthesis was lengthened at appropriate intervals in outpatient clinics, without anaesthesia, using the principle of electromagnetic induction. The patients were functionally evaluated using the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society scoring system. The mean follow-up was 20.2 months (14 to 30). The prostheses were lengthened by a mean of 25 mm (4.25 to 55) and maintained a mean knee flexion of 110° (100° to 120°). The mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society score was 68% (11 to 29). Complications developed in two patients; one developed a flexion deformity of 25° at the knee joint, which was subsequently overcome and one died of disseminated disease. The early results from patients treated with this device have been encouraging. The implant avoids multiple surgical procedures, general anaesthesia and assists in maintaining leg-length equality.