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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 1 | Pages 93 - 97
10 Jan 2022
Kunze KN Orr M Krebs V Bhandari M Piuzzi NS

Artificial intelligence and machine-learning analytics have gained extensive popularity in recent years due to their clinically relevant applications. A wide range of proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated the ability of these analyses to personalize risk prediction, detect implant specifics from imaging, and monitor and assess patient movement and recovery. Though these applications are exciting and could potentially influence practice, it is imperative to understand when these analyses are indicated and where the data are derived from, prior to investing resources and confidence into the results and conclusions. In this article, we review the current benefits and potential limitations of machine-learning for the orthopaedic surgeon with a specific emphasis on data quality.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1488 - 1496
1 Sep 2021
Emara AK Zhou G Klika AK Koroukian SM Schiltz NK Higuera-Rueda CA Molloy RM Piuzzi NS


The current study aimed to compare robotic arm-assisted (RA-THA), computer-assisted (CA-THA), and manual (M-THA) total hip arthroplasty regarding in-hospital metrics including length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, in-hospital complications, and cost of RA-THA versus M-THA and CA-THA versus M-THA, as well as trends in use and uptake over a ten-year period, and future projections of uptake and use of RA-THA and CA-THA.


The National Inpatient Sample was queried for primary THAs (2008 to 2017) which were categorized into RA-THA, CA-THA, and M-THA. Past and projected use, demographic characteristics distribution, income, type of insurance, location, and healthcare setting were compared among the three cohorts. In-hospital complications, LOS, discharge disposition, and in-hospital costs were compared between propensity score-matched cohorts of M-THA versus RA-THA and M-THA versus CA-THA to adjust for baseline characteristics and comorbidities.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1183 - 1193
14 Sep 2020
Anis HK Strnad GJ Klika AK Zajichek A Spindler KP Barsoum WK Higuera CA Piuzzi NS


The purpose of this study was to develop a personalized outcome prediction tool, to be used with knee arthroplasty patients, that predicts outcomes (lengths of stay (LOS), 90 day readmission, and one-year patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) on an individual basis and allows for dynamic modifiable risk factors.


Data were prospectively collected on all patients who underwent total or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty at a between July 2015 and June 2018. Cohort 1 (n = 5,958) was utilized to develop models for LOS and 90 day readmission. Cohort 2 (n = 2,391, surgery date 2015 to 2017) was utilized to develop models for one-year improvements in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain score, KOOS function score, and KOOS quality of life (QOL) score. Model accuracies within the imputed data set were assessed through cross-validation with root mean square errors (RMSEs) and mean absolute errors (MAEs) for the LOS and PROMs models, and the index of prediction accuracy (IPA), and area under the curve (AUC) for the readmission models. Model accuracies in new patient data sets were assessed with AUC.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 6 | Pages 272 - 280
19 Jun 2020
King D Emara AK Ng MK Evans PJ Estes K Spindler KP Mroz T Patterson BM Krebs VE Pinney S Piuzzi NS Schaffer JL

Virtual encounters have experienced an exponential rise amid the current COVID-19 crisis. This abrupt change, seen in response to unprecedented medical and environmental challenges, has been forced upon the orthopaedic community. However, such changes to adopting virtual care and technology were already in the evolution forecast, albeit in an unpredictable timetable impeded by regulatory and financial barriers. This adoption is not meant to replace, but rather augment established, traditional models of care while ensuring patient/provider safety, especially during the pandemic. While our department, like those of other institutions, has performed virtual care for several years, it represented a small fraction of daily care. The pandemic required an accelerated and comprehensive approach to the new reality. Contemporary literature has already shown equivalent safety and patient satisfaction, as well as superior efficiency and reduced expenses with musculoskeletal virtual care (MSKVC) versus traditional models. Nevertheless, current literature detailing operational models of MSKVC is scarce. The current review describes our pre-pandemic MSKVC model and the shift to a MSKVC pandemic workflow that enumerates the conceptual workflow organization (patient triage, from timely care provision based on symptom acuity/severity to a continuum that includes future follow-up). Furthermore, specific setup requirements (both resource/personnel requirements such as hardware, software, and network connectivity requirements, and patient/provider characteristics respectively), and professional expectations are outlined. MSKVC has already become a pivotal element of musculoskeletal care, due to COVID-19, and these changes are confidently here to stay. Readiness to adapt and evolve will be required of individual musculoskeletal clinical teams as well as organizations, as established paradigms evolve.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2020;1-6:272–280.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 6 | Pages 683 - 692
1 Jun 2020
Arnold N Anis H Barsoum WK Bloomfield MR Brooks PJ Higuera CA Kamath AF Klika A Krebs VE Mesko NW Molloy RM Mont MA Murray TG Patel PD Strnad G Stearns KL Warren J Zajichek A Piuzzi NS


Thresholds for operative eligibility based on body mass index (BMI) alone may restrict patient access to the benefits of arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and improvements in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and to determine how many patients would have been denied improvements in PROMs if BMI cut-offs were to be implemented.


A prospective cohort of 3,449 primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed between 2015 and 2018 were analyzed. The following one-year PROMs were evaluated: hip injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS) pain, HOOS Physical Function Shortform (PS), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity, Veterans Rand-12 Physical Component Score (VR-12 PCS), and VR-12 Mental Component Score (VR-12 MCS). Positive predictive values for failure to improve and the number of patients denied surgery in order to avoid a failed improvement were calculated for each PROM at different BMI cut-offs.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 2 | Pages 148 - 154
1 Feb 2020
Murray IR Chahla J Frank RM Piuzzi NS Mandelbaum BR Dragoo JL

Cell therapies hold significant promise for the treatment of injured or diseased musculoskeletal tissues. However, despite advances in research, there is growing concern about the increasing number of clinical centres around the world that are making unwarranted claims or are performing risky biological procedures. Such providers have been known to recommend, prescribe, or deliver so called ‘stem cell’ preparations without sufficient data to support their true content and efficacy. In this annotation, we outline the current environment of stem cell-based treatments and the strategies of marketing directly to consumers. We also outline the difficulties in the regulation of these clinics and make recommendations for best practice and the identification and reporting of illegitimate providers.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(2):148–154

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 8 | Pages 891 - 896
1 Aug 2019
Rossi LA Murray IR Chu CR Muschler GF Rodeo SA Piuzzi NS

There is good scientific rationale to support the use of growth factors to promote musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. However, the clinical effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and other blood-derived products has yet to be proven. Characterization and reporting of PRP preparation protocols utilized in clinical trials for the treatment of musculoskeletal disease is highly inconsistent, and the majority of studies do not provide sufficient information to allow the protocols to be reproduced. Furthermore, the reporting of blood-derived products in orthopaedics is limited by the multiple PRP classification systems available, which makes comparison of results between studies challenging. Several attempts have been made to characterize and classify PRP; however, no consensus has been reached, and there is lack of a comprehensive and validated classification. In this annotation, we outline existing systems used to classify preparations of PRP, highlighting their advantages and limitations. There remains a need for standardized universal nomenclature to describe biological therapies, as well as a comprehensive and reproducible classification system for autologous blood-derived products.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:891–896.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1267 - 1279
1 Oct 2017
Chughtai M Piuzzi NS Khlopas A Jones LC Goodman SB Mont MA

Non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a potentially devastating condition, the prevalence of which is increasing. Many joint-preserving forms of treatment, both medical and surgical, have been developed in an attempt to slow or reverse its progression, as it usually affects young patients.

However, it is important to evaluate the best evidence that is available for the many forms of treatment considering the variation in the demographics of the patients, the methodology and the outcomes in the studies that have been published, so that it can be used effectively.

The purpose of this review, therefore, was to provide an up-to-date, evidence-based guide to the management, both non-operative and operative, of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1267–79.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 4 | Pages 530 - 534
1 Apr 2014
Gallucci GL Piuzzi NS Slullitel PAI Boretto JG Alfie VA Donndorff A De Carli P

We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of a consecutive cohort of patients aged > 70 years with a displaced fracture of the olecranon, which was treated non-operatively with early mobilisation. We identified 28 such patients (27 women) with a mean age of 82 years (71 to 91). The elbow was initially immobilised in an above elbow cast in 90° of flexion of the elbow for a mean of five days. The cast was then replaced by a sling. Active mobilisation was encouraged as tolerated. No formal rehabilitation was undertaken. At a mean follow-up of 16 months (12 to 26), the mean ranges of flexion and extension were 140° and 15° respectively. On a visual analogue scale of 1 (no pain) to 10, the mean pain score was 1 (0 to 8). Of the original 28 patients 22 developed nonunion, but no patients required surgical treatment.

We conclude that non-operative functional treatment of displaced olecranon fractures in the elderly gives good results and a high rate of satisfaction.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:530–4.