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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 8, Issue 5 | Pages 207 - 215
1 May 2019
Key S Scott G Stammers JG Freeman MAR Pinskerova V Field RE Skinner J Banks SA


The medially spherical GMK Sphere (Medacta International AG, Castel San Pietro, Switzerland) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was previously shown to accommodate lateral rollback while pivoting around a stable medial compartment, aiming to replicate native knee kinematics in which some coronal laxity, especially laterally, is also present. We assess coronal plane kinematics of the GMK Sphere and explore the occurrence and pattern of articular separation during static and dynamic activities.


Using pulsed fluoroscopy and image matching, the coronal kinematics and articular surface separation of 16 well-functioning TKAs were studied during weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing, static, and dynamic activities. The closest distances between the modelled articular surfaces were examined with respect to knee position, and proportions of joint poses exhibiting separation were computed.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 3 | Pages 80 - 86
1 Mar 2016
Scott G Imam MA Eifert A Freeman MAR Pinskerova V Field RE Skinner J Banks SA


Throughout the 20th Century, it has been postulated that the knee moves on the basis of a four-bar link mechanism composed of the cruciate ligaments, the femur and the tibia. As a consequence, the femur has been thought to roll back with flexion, and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) prostheses have been designed on this basis. Recent work, however, has proposed that at a position of between 0° and 120° the medial femoral condyle does not move anteroposteriorly whereas the lateral femoral condyle tends, but is not obliged, to roll back – a combination of movements which equates to tibial internal/ femoral external rotation with flexion. The aim of this paper was to assess if the articular geometry of the GMK Sphere TKA could recreate the natural knee movements in situ/in vivo.


The pattern of knee movement was studied in 15 patients (six male: nine female; one male with bilateral TKAs) with 16 GMK Sphere implants, at a mean age of 66 years (53 to 76) with a mean BMI of 30 kg/m2 (20 to 35). The motions of all 16 knees were observed using pulsed fluoroscopy during a number of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing static and dynamic activities.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 6 | Pages 830 - 834
1 Jun 2009
Pinskerova V Samuelson KM Stammers J Maruthainar K Sosna A Freeman MAR

There has been only one limited report dating from 1941 using dissection which has described the tibiofemoral joint between 120° and 160° of flexion despite the relevance of this arc to total knee replacement. We now provide a full description having examined one living and eight cadaver knees using MRI, dissection and previously published cryosections in one knee.

In the range of flexion from 120° to 160° the flexion facet centre of the medial femoral condyle moves back 5 mm and rises up on to the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. At 160° the posterior horn is compressed in a synovial recess between the femoral cortex and the tibia. This limits flexion. The lateral femoral condyle also rolls back with the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus moving with the condyle. Both move down over the posterior tibia at 160° of flexion.

Neither the events between 120° and 160° nor the anatomy at 160° could result from a continuation of the kinematics up to 120°. Therefore hyperflexion is a separate arc. The anatomical and functional features of this arc suggest that it would be difficult to design an implant for total knee replacement giving physiological movement from 0° to 160°.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 3 | Pages 330 - 333
1 Mar 2008
Lankester BJA Cottam HL Pinskerova V Eldridge JDJ Freeman MAR

From a search of MRI reports on knees, 20 patients were identified with evidence of early anteromedial osteoarthritis without any erosion of bone and a control group of patients had an acute rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. The angle formed between the extension and flexion facets of the tibia, which is known as the extension facet angle, was measured on a sagittal image at the middle of the medial femoral condyle.

The mean extension facet angle in the control group was 14° (3° to 25°) and was unrelated to age (Spearman’s rank coefficient, p = 0.30, r = 0.13). The mean extension facet angle in individuals with MRI evidence of early anteromedial osteoarthritis was 19° (13° to 26°, SD 4°). This difference was significant (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.001).

A wide variation in the extension facet angle was found in the normal control knees and an association between an increased extension facet angle and MRI evidence of early anteromedial osteoarthritis. Although a causal link has not been demonstrated, we postulate that a steeper extension facet angle might increase the duration of loading on the extension facet during the stance phase of gait, and that this might initiate failure of the articular cartilage.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 6 | Pages 925 - 931
1 Aug 2004
Pinskerova V Johal P Nakagawa S Sosna A Williams A Gedroyc W Freeman MAR

MRI studies of the knee were performed at intervals between full extension and 120° of flexion in six cadavers and also non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing in five volunteers. At each interval sagittal images were obtained through both compartments on which the position of the femoral condyle, identified by the centre of its posterior circular surface which is termed the flexion facet centre (FFC), and the point of closest approximation between the femoral and tibial subchondral plates, the contact point (CP), were identified relative to the posterior tibial cortex.

The movements of the CP and FFC were essentially the same in the three groups but in all three the medial differed from the lateral compartment and the movement of the FFC differed from that of the CP. Medially from 30° to 120° the FFC and CP coincided and did not move anteroposteriorly. From 30° to 0° the anteroposterior position of the FFC remained unchanged but the CP moved forwards by about 15 mm. Laterally, the FFC and the CP moved backwards together by about 15 mm from 20° to 120°. From 20° to full extension both the FFC and CP moved forwards, but the latter moved more than the former. The differences between the movements of the FFC and the CP could be explained by the sagittal shapes of the bones, especially anteriorly.

The term ‘roll-back’ can be applied to solid bodies, e.g. the condyles, but not to areas. The lateral femoral condyle does roll-back with flexion but the medial does not, i.e. the femur rotates externally around a medial centre. By contrast, both the medial and lateral contact points move back, roughly in parallel, from 0° to 120° but they cannot ‘roll’.

Femoral roll-back with flexion, usually imagined as backward rolling of both condyles, does not occur.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 3 | Pages 450 - 456
1 Apr 2004
Nakagawa S Johal P Pinskerova V Komatsu T Sosna A Williams A Freeman MAR

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was imaged by MRI throughout flexion in neutral tibial rotation in six cadaver knees, which were also dissected, and in 20 unloaded and 13 loaded living (squatting) knees. The appearance of the ligament was the same in all three groups. In extension the ligament is curved concave-forwards. It is straight, fully out-to-length and approaching vertical from 60° to 120°, and curves convex-forwards over the roof of the intercondylar notch in full flexion. Throughout flexion the length of the ligament does not change, but the separations of its attachments do.

We conclude that the PCL is not loaded in the unloaded cadaver knee and therefore, since its appearance in all three groups is the same, that it is also unloaded in the living knee during flexion. The posterior fibres may be an exception in hyperextension, probably being loaded either because of posterior femoral lift-off or because of the forward curvature of the PCL. These conclusions relate only to everyday life: none may be drawn with regard to more strenuous activities such as sport or in trauma.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 1 | Pages 45 - 51
1 Jan 2003
Skinner JA Todo S Taylor M Wang JS Pinskerova V Scott G

We have compared the survival and radiological outcome at ten years after total hip replacement using two techniques for preparing the femoral canal. The same prosthesis was used throughout and all operations were performed by the same surgical team. In technique 1 the canal was over-reamed by 2 mm and in technique 2 it was reamed to the same size as the prosthesis. Technique 1 was performed on 92 patients and technique 2 on 97 patients.

The survival at ten years was 97.2% (90.6 to 99.2) for technique 1 and 98.8% (92.9 to 99.8) for technique 2. Vertical migration was greater in technique 1 (1.8 mm versus 1.0 mm at five years; p = 0.36). There were significantly more lytic lesions and radiolucent lines at five years (p = 0.0061) with technique 1. We conclude that technique 2 is not worse and may produce better long- term results than current teaching suggests.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 4 | Pages 607 - 613
1 May 2002
Martelli S Pinskerova V

We report a study of the shapes of the tibial and femoral articular surfaces in sagittal, frontal and coronal planes which was performed on cadaver knees using two techniques, MRI and computer interpolation of sections of the articular surfaces acquired by a three-dimensional digitiser.

The findings using MRI, confirmed in a previous study by dissection, were the same as those using the digitiser. Thus both methods appear to be valid anatomical tools.

The tibial and femoral articular surfaces can be divided into anterior segments, contacting from 0° to 20 ± 10° of flexion, and posterior segments, contacting from 20 ± 10° to 120° of flexion. The medial and lateral compartments are asymmetrical, particularly anteriorly. Posteromedially, the femur is spherical and is located in a conforming, but partly deficient, tibial socket. Posterolaterally, it is circular only in the sagittal section and the tibia is flat centrally, sloping downwards both anteriorly and posteriorly to receive the meniscal horns. Anteromedially, the femur is convex with a sagittal radius larger than that posteriorly, while the tibia is flat sloping upwards and forwards. Anterolaterally, both the femoral and tibial surfaces are largely deficient.

These shapes suggest that medially the femur can rotate on the tibia through three axes intersecting in the middle of the femoral sphere, but that the sphere can only translate anteroposteriorly and even then to a limited extent. Laterally, the femur can freely translate anteroposteriorly, but can only rotate around a transverse axis for that part of the arc, i.e., near extension, during which it comes into contact with the tibia through its flattened distal/medial surface as against its spherical posterior surface.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1189 - 1195
1 Nov 2000
Iwaki H Pinskerova V Freeman MAR

In six unloaded cadaver knees we used MRI to determine the shapes of the articular surfaces and their relative movements. These were confirmed by dissection.

Medially, the femoral condyle in sagittal section is composed of the arcs of two circles and that of the tibia of two angled flats. The anterior facets articulate in extension. At about 20° the femur ‘rocks’ to articulate through the posterior facets. The medial femoral condyle does not move anteroposteriorly with flexion to 110°.

Laterally, the femoral condyle is composed entirely, or almost entirely, of a single circular facet similar in radius and arc to the posterior medial facet. The tibia is roughly flat. The femur tends to roll backwards with flexion.

The combination during flexion of no antero-posterior movement medially (i.e., sliding) and backward rolling (combined with sliding) laterally equates to internal rotation of the tibia around a medial axis with flexion. About 5° of this rotation may be obligatory from 0° to 10° flexion; thereafter little rotation occurs to at least 45°. Total rotation at 110° is about 20°, most if not all of which can be suppressed by applying external rotation to the tibia at 90°.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1196 - 1198
1 Nov 2000
Hill PF Vedi V Williams A Iwaki H Pinskerova V Freeman MAR

In 13 unloaded living knees we confirmed the findings previously obtained in the unloaded cadaver knee during flexion and external rotation/internal rotation using MRI. In seven loaded living knees with the subjects squatting, the relative tibiofemoral movements were similar to those in the unloaded knee except that the medial femoral condyle tended to move about 4 mm forwards with flexion. Four of the seven loaded knees were studied during flexion in external and internal rotation. As predicted, flexion (squatting) with the tibia in external rotation suppressed the internal rotation of the tibia which had been observed during unloaded flexion.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1100 - 1102
1 Nov 2000
Pinskerova V Maquet P Freeman MAR